Assessing Nanoparticle Risks To Human Health

Author: Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Editor: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323354084
Size: 15,10 MB
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Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health provides a systematic overview of nanoparticle risks and considers the limitations of this paradigm in a context where extreme uncertainties prevail. As well as exploring conventional risk assessment methodology, the contributing authors investigate several alternate approaches. The adequacy of current frameworks for risk management and regulatory oversights, including corporate approaches in the US and EU, are explored, and suggestions are made as to how these frameworks can be modified to make them more efficient and effective. Presenting a coherent framework for analysis of the available information, this book presents the latest scientific understanding of the toxicity and health effects of nanoparticles, the technical issues relating to exposure assessment and management, and the ways in which the current risk paradigm can be used/modified to deal with the challenges of nanoparticle risks. All chapters of this new edition have been thoroughly updated to reflect the many changes in the field since the first edition. Additions and updates in the second edition of the book include: New exposure assessment strategies for nanomaterials including life cycle exposure assessment approaches and detailed information on nanoparticle exposure control and protection in the workplace. A state-of-the-art scientific update on the hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials: discussion of key additional publications on the toxicology and biokinetics of nanomaterials; available data and methods to characterize the health hazard and risk of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace; additional examples of the use of such data and methods to develop occupational safety and health guidance; and discussion of progress to date, ongoing efforts, and remaining challenges in nanomaterials hazard and risk characterization. New studies on the use of expert judgment in nanotechnology. Quantitative data from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s 4-phase study. A description and evaluation of new CB tools and new ISO technical specifications. A comprehensive update of the legal frameworks in the US and the EU. With the second edition of Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health Prof. Ramachandran provides researchers and practitioners producing or using nanoparticles, or those involved in nanomaterials risk assessments, technology, health science, policy, safety, environment and regulatory aspects an invaluable reference to adopt the right technologies and strategies and to comply to legal frameworks and regulations. For policy makers and advisory firms it provides the knowledge needed to advise on compliance with or development of new regulations on nanomaterials. Makes essential reading for risk assessment professionals, companies working with nanoparticles, nanotechnology research groups and regulators Explores the use of risk assessment methodologies in an occupational health setting, and their limitations Provides a framework for evidence-based decision making in a context with many uncertainties

Micromixers

Author: Nam-Trung Nguyen
Editor: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437735215
Size: 20,34 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The ability to mix minute quantities of fluids is critical in a range of recent and emerging techniques in engineering, chemistry and life sciences, with applications as diverse as inkjet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, specialty and hazardous chemical manufacturing, DNA analysis and disease diagnosis. The multidisciplinary nature of this field – intersecting engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, microtechnology and biotechnology – means that the community of engineers and scientists now engaged in developing microfluidic devices has entered the field from a variety of different backgrounds. Micromixers is uniquely comprehensive, in that it deals not only with the problems that are directly related to fluidics as a discipline (aspects such as mass transport, molecular diffusion, electrokinetic phenomena, flow instabilities, etc.) but also with the practical issues of fabricating micomixers and building them into microsystems and lab-on-chip assemblies.With practical applications to the design of systems vital in modern communications, medicine and industry this book has already established itself as a key reference in an emerging and important field. The 2e includes coverage of a broader range of fabrication techniques, additional examples of fully realized devices for each type of micromixer and a substantially extended section on industrial applications, including recent and emerging applications. Introduces the design and applications of micromixers for a broad audience across chemical engineering, electronics and the life sciences, and applications as diverse as lab-on-a-chip, ink jet printing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and DNA analysis Helps engineers and scientists to unlock the potential of micromixers by explaining both the scientific (microfluidics) aspects and the engineering involved in building and using successful microscale systems and devices with micromixers The author's applied approach combines experience-based discussion of the challenges and pitfalls of using micromixers, with proposals for how to overcome them

Ceramic Thick Films For Mems And Microdevices

Author: Robert A. Dorey
Editor: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437778178
Size: 18,87 MB
Format: PDF
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The MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) market returned to growth in 2010. The total MEMS market is worth about $6.5 billion, up more than 11 percent from last year and nearly as high as its historic peak in 2007. MEMS devices are used across sectors as diverse as automotive, aerospace, medical, industrial process control, instrumentation and telecommunications - forming the nerve center of products including airbag crash sensors, pressure sensors, biosensors and ink jet printer heads. Part of the MEMS cluster within the Micro & Nano Technologies Series, this book covers the fabrication techniques and applications of thick film piezoelectric micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). It includes examples of applications where the piezoelectric thick films have been used, illustrating how the fabrication process relates to the properties and performance of the resulting device. Other topics include: top-down and bottom-up fabrication of thick film MEMS, integration of thick films with other materials, effect of microstructure on properties, device performance, etc. Provides detailed guidance on the fabrication techniques and applications of thick film MEMS, for engineers and R&D groups. Written by a single author, this book provides a clear, coherently-written guide to this important emerging technology. Covers materials, fabrication and applications in one book.

Emerging Nanotechnologies In Dentistry

Author: Karthikeyan Subramani
Editor: William Andrew
ISBN: 1455778575
Size: 10,74 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants). The use of nanostructures that will work in harmony with the body’s own regenerative processes (eg, to restore tooth structure or alveolar bone) are moving into clinical practice. This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of nanomaterials, biomedical engineering and dentistry, to cover the new materials and techniques with potential for use intra-orally or extra-orally for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region. New dental nanotechnologies include the use of advanced inorganic and organic materials, smart and biomimetic materials, tissue engineering and drug delivery strategies. Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of bio-nanomaterial scientists and dental/oral biomedical researchers Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications – repair,restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention Book focuses in depth on the materials manufacturing processes involved with emphasis on pre-clinical and clinical applications, use and biocompatibility

Fundamentals Of Food Biotechnology

Author: Byong H. Lee
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118384911
Size: 10,48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Food biotechnology is the application of modern biotechnologicaltechniques to the manufacture and processing of food, for examplethrough fermentation of food (which is the oldest biotechnologicalprocess) and food additives, as well as plant and animal cellcultures. New developments in fermentation and enzyme technologicalprocesses, molecular thermodynamics, genetic engineering, proteinengineering, metabolic engineering, bioengineering, and processesinvolving monoclonal antibodies, nanobiotechnology and quorumsensing have introduced exciting new dimensions to foodbiotechnology, a burgeoning field that transcends many scientificdisciplines. Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology, 2nd edition is basedon the author’s 25 years of experience teaching on a foodbiotechnology course at McGill University in Canada. The book willappeal to professional food scientists as well as graduate andadvanced undergraduate students by addressing the latest excitingfood biotechnology research in areas such as genetically modifiedfoods (GMOs), bioenergy, bioplastics, functionalfoods/nutraceuticals, nanobiotechnology, quorum sensing andquenching. In addition, cloning techniques for bacterial and yeastenzymes are included in a “New Trends and Tools”section and selected references, questions and answers appear atthe end of each chapter. This new edition has been comprehensively rewritten andrestructured to reflect the new technologies, products and trendsthat have emerged since the original book. Many new aspectshighlight the short and longer term commercial potential of foodbiotechnology.

Nanotechnology Environmental Health And Safety

Author: Matthew Hull
Editor: William Andrew
ISBN: 1455731900
Size: 15,78 MB
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Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety, Second Edition focuses not only on the impact of nanotechnology and the discipline of nanotoxicity, but also explains each of these disciplines through in the context of management requirements and via risk scenarios — providing an overview of regulation, risk management, and exposure. Contributors thoroughly explain environmental health and safety (EHS) issues, financial implications, foreseeable risks (e.g., exposure, dose, hazards of nanomaterials), occupational hygiene, and consumer protection. Key new chapters have been included covering eco-toxicity, nanomedicine, informatics, and future threats. New case studies have also been added, including a chapter on the impact of nanosilver on the environment, as well as an assessment of how well lessons have been learned from the past, such as in the case of asbestos. The book also makes a business case for the importance of proactive EHS management - essential reading for existing or prospective producers of nanoscale products. Practical guidance on risk management and mitigation across different legislative frameworks worldwide Reviews toxicological studies and industrial initiatives, supported by numerous case studies Includes extensive new material on the implications of nanotechnology for medicine, energy and food, as well as assessing future threats.

The Nano Micro Interface 2 Volumes

Author: Marcel Van de Voorde
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527679219
Size: 15,77 MB
Format: PDF
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Controlling the properties of materials by modifying their composition and by manipulating the arrangement of atoms and molecules is a dream that can be achieved by nanotechnology. As one of the fastest developing and innovative -- as well as well-funded -- fields in science, nanotechnology has already significantly changed the research landscape in chemistry, materials science, and physics, with numerous applications in consumer products, such as sunscreens and water-repellent clothes. It is also thanks to this multidisciplinary field that flat panel displays, highly efficient solar cells, and new biological imaging techniques have become reality. This second, enlarged edition has been fully updated to address the rapid progress made within this field in recent years. Internationally recognized experts provide comprehensive, first-hand information, resulting in an overview of the entire nano-micro world. In so doing, they cover aspects of funding and commercialization, the manufacture and future applications of nanomaterials, the fundamentals of nanostructures leading to macroscale objects as well as the ongoing miniaturization toward the nanoscale domain. Along the way, the authors explain the effects occurring at the nanoscale and the nanotechnological characterization techniques. An additional topic on the role of nanotechnology in energy and mobility covers the challenge of developing materials and devices, such as electrodes and membrane materials for fuel cells and catalysts for sustainable transportation. Also new to this edition are the latest figures for funding, investments, and commercialization prospects, as well as recent research programs and organizations.

Novel Materials In The Environment

Author: Great Britain. Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution
Editor: The Stationery Office
ISBN: 9780101746823
Size: 10,26 MB
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The Royal Commission's decision to study novel materials was motivated by concern about the potential for releases to the environment arising from increasing industrial applications of metals and minerals that have not previously been widely used and, secondly, by the embodiment of nanoparticles and nanotubes in a wide range of consumer products and specialist applications in fields such as medicine and environmental remediation. Most of the evidence received focused on nanomaterials - particles, fibres and tubes on the scale of a few billionths of a metre. Chapters 2 and 3 explore the extent to which novel substances are currently being deployed, the plausible pathways by which they might enter the environment, their likely environmental destinations in use or disposal and the possible consequences of their release to those destinations. Chapter 4 considers what arrangements would be most appropriate for the governance of emerging technologies under two conditions that pose serious constraints on any regulator. First is the condition of ignorance about the possible environmental impacts in the absence of any kind of track record for the technology. Second is the condition of ubiquity - the fact that new technologies no longer develop in a context of local experimentation but emerge as globally pervasive systems - which challenges both trial-and-error learning and attempts at national regulation. Both new governance approaches and modifications to existing ones are likely to be called for. They will need to be rooted in ideas of adaptive management that require multiple perspectives on the issues. The Commission's recommendations are based on the premise that it is the functionality of the material, not particle size or mode of production, which is critical for evaluating its potential impact on the environment or human health.

Handbook Of Nanosafety

Author: Ulla Vogel
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124166628
Size: 14,23 MB
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Handbook of Nanosafety: Measurement, Exposure and Toxicology, written by leading international experts in nanosafety, provides a comprehensive understanding of engineered nanomaterials (ENM), current international nanosafety regulation, and how ENM can be safely handled in the workplace. Increasingly, the importance of safety needs to be considered when promoting the use of novel technologies like ENM. With its use of case studies and exposure scenarios, Handbook of Nanosafety demonstrates techniques to assess exposure and risks and how these assessments can be applied to improve workers' safety. Topics covered include the effects of ENM on human health, characterization of ENM, aerosol dynamics and measurement, exposure and risk assessment, and safe handling of ENM. Based on outcomes from the NANODEVICE initiative, this is an essential resource for those who need to apply current nanotoxicological thinking in the workplace and anyone who advises on nanosafety, such as professionals in toxicology, occupational safety and risk assessment. Multi-authored book, written by leading researchers in the field of nanotoxicology and nanosafety Features state-of-the-art physical and chemical characterization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) Develops strategies for exposure assessment, risk assessment and risk management Includes practical case studies and exposure scenarios to demonstrate how you can safely use ENM in the workplace

Nanotechnology For Water And Wastewater Treatment

Author: P. Lens
Editor: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1780404581
Size: 19,44 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The rapid development of nanoscience enables a technology revolution that will soon impact virtually every facet of the water sector. Yet, there is still too little understanding of what nanoscience and nanotechnology is, what can it do and whether to fear it or not, even among the educated public as well as scientists and engineers from other disciplines. Despite the numerous books and textbooks available on the subject, there is a gap in the literature that bridges the space between the synthesis (conventional and more greener methods) and use (applications in the drinking water production, wastewater treatment and environmental remediation fields) of nanotechnology on the one hand and its potential environmental implications (fate and transport of nanomaterials, toxicity, Life Cycle Assessments) on the other. Nanotechnology for Water and Wastewater Treatment explores these topics with a broad-based multidisciplinary scope and can be used by engineers and scientists outside the field and by students at both undergraduate and post graduate level. Table of Contents Introduction: Nanotechnology for water and wastewater treatment: potential and limitation; Characteristics and properties of nanoparticles; Physical and chemical analysis of nanoparticles; Fate and transport of nanoparticles/nanomaterials, toxicity studies; Nanoparticles and bioremediation; Nanosorbents; Effective Phosphate Removal Using Ca-based Layered Double Hydroxide Materials; Mg(OH)2 nanoadsorbent during Treating the Low Concentration of Cr; Nano catalysts; Visible-light doped titania for water purification: nitrogen and silver doping; Doping of Pd nanocatalysts for PCB removal; The use of bimetallic nanosystems to remove POPs from soils and sediments"; Nanomaterials for disinfection and microbial control; Microbial manufactured silver nanoparticles for water disinfection; Electrospun nanofibers for Point-of-Use Water Treatment; Nanomaterials to enhance filtration; Metalic and ceramic microreactors; Enzyme-Immobilized Nanofiltration Membrane To Mitigate Biofouling Based on Quorum Quenching; Biomimetic membranes for water filtration; Nano sensors ; Functionalised graphene: a novel platform for biosensors; Lab-on-a-Chip Interferometric Biosensor Nanotechnology; Nanosensors for pathogens; Nanomanufacturing: Materials Design and Production; Green synthesis of nanoparticles and nanocatalysts; Plant-based nanoparticle manufacturing.