Informative Hypotheses

Author: Herbert Hoijtink
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439880522
Size: 18,34 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 437
Download

When scientists formulate their theories, expectations, and hypotheses, they often use statements like: ``I expect mean A to be bigger than means B and C"; ``I expect that the relation between Y and both X1 and X2 is positive"; and ``I expect the relation between Y and X1 to be stronger than the relation between Y and X2". Stated otherwise, they formulate their expectations in terms of inequality constraints among the parameters in which they are interested, that is, they formulate Informative Hypotheses. There is currently a sound theoretical foundation for the evaluation of informative hypotheses using Bayes factors, p-values and the generalized order restricted information criterion. Furthermore, software that is often free is available to enable researchers to evaluate the informative hypotheses using their own data. The road is open to challenge the dominance of the null hypothesis for contemporary research in behavioral, social, and other sciences.

Bayesian Evaluation Of Informative Hypotheses

Author: Herbert Hoijtink
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387096124
Size: 15,73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 888
Download

This book provides an overview of the developments in the area of Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses that took place since the publication of the ?rst paper on this topic in 2001 [Hoijtink, H. Con?rmatory latent class analysis, model selection using Bayes factors and (pseudo) likelihood ratio statistics. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 563–588]. The current state of a?airs was presented and discussed by the authors of this book during a workshop in Utrecht in June 2007. Here we would like to thank all authors for their participation, ideas, and contributions. We would also like to thank Sophie van der Zee for her editorial e?orts during the construction of this book. Another word of thanks is due to John Kimmel of Springer for his con?dence in the editors and authors. Finally, we would like to thank the Netherlands Organization for Scienti?c Research (NWO) whose VICI grant (453-05-002) awarded to the ?rst author enabled the organization of the workshop, the writing of this book, and continuation of the research with respect to Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses.

Modern Statistical Methods For Hci

Author: Judy Robertson
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319266330
Size: 20,54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 447
Download

This book critically reflects on current statistical methods used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and introduces a number of novel methods to the reader. Covering many techniques and approaches for exploratory data analysis including effect and power calculations, experimental design, event history analysis, non-parametric testing and Bayesian inference; the research contained in this book discusses how to communicate statistical results fairly, as well as presenting a general set of recommendations for authors and reviewers to improve the quality of statistical analysis in HCI. Each chapter presents [R] code for running analyses on HCI examples and explains how the results can be interpreted. Modern Statistical Methods for HCI is aimed at researchers and graduate students who have some knowledge of “traditional” null hypothesis significance testing, but who wish to improve their practice by using techniques which have recently emerged from statistics and related fields. This book critically evaluates current practices within the field and supports a less rigid, procedural view of statistics in favour of fair statistical communication.

Bayesian Statistics For The Social Sciences

Author: David Kaplan
Editor: Guilford Publications
ISBN: 1462516513
Size: 19,51 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 667
Download

Bridging the gap between traditional classical statistics and a Bayesian approach, David Kaplan provides readers with the concepts and practical skills they need to apply Bayesian methodologies to their data analysis problems. Part I addresses the elements of Bayesian inference, including exchangeability, likelihood, prior/posterior distributions, and the Bayesian central limit theorem. Part II covers Bayesian hypothesis testing, model building, and linear regression analysis, carefully explaining the differences between the Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Part III extends Bayesian statistics to multilevel modeling and modeling for continuous and categorical latent variables. Kaplan closes with a discussion of philosophical issues and argues for an "evidence-based" framework for the practice of Bayesian statistics. User-Friendly Features *Includes worked-through, substantive examples, using large-scale educational and social science databases, such as PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) and the LSAY (Longitudinal Study of American Youth). *Utilizes open-source R software programs available on CRAN (such as MCMCpack and rjags); readers do not have to master the R language and can easily adapt the example programs to fit individual needs. *Shows readers how to carefully warrant priors on the basis of empirical data. *Companion website features data and code for the book's examples, plus other resources.

The Sage Handbook Of Quantitative Methods In Psychology

Author: Roger E Millsap
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 144620667X
Size: 13,64 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 456
Download

`I often... wonder to myself whether the field needs another book, handbook, or encyclopedia on this topic. In this case I think that the answer is truly yes. The handbook is well focused on important issues in the field, and the chapters are written by recognized authorities in their fields. The book should appeal to anyone who wants an understanding of important topics that frequently go uncovered in graduate education in psychology' - David C Howell, Professor Emeritus, University of Vermont Quantitative psychology is arguably one of the oldest disciplines within the field of psychology and nearly all psychologists are exposed to quantitative psychology in some form. While textbooks in statistics, research methods and psychological measurement exist, none offer a unified treatment of quantitative psychology. The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology does just that. Each chapter covers a methodological topic with equal attention paid to established theory and the challenges facing methodologists as they address new research questions using that particular methodology. The reader will come away from each chapter with a greater understanding of the methodology being addressed as well as an understanding of the directions for future developments within that methodological area. Drawing on a global scholarship, the Handbook is divided into seven parts: Part One: Design and Inference: addresses issues in the inference of causal relations from experimental and non-experimental research, along with the design of true experiments and quasi-experiments, and the problem of missing data due to various influences such as attrition or non-compliance. Part Two: Measurement Theory: begins with a chapter on classical test theory, followed by the common factor analysis model as a model for psychological measurement. The models for continuous latent variables in item-response theory are covered next, followed by a chapter on discrete latent variable models as represented in latent class analysis. Part Three: Scaling Methods: covers metric and non-metric scaling methods as developed in multidimensional scaling, followed by consideration of the scaling of discrete measures as found in dual scaling and correspondence analysis. Models for preference data such as those found in random utility theory are covered next. Part Four: Data Analysis: includes chapters on regression models, categorical data analysis, multilevel or hierarchical models, resampling methods, robust data analysis, meta-analysis, Bayesian data analysis, and cluster analysis. Part Five: Structural Equation Models: addresses topics in general structural equation modeling, nonlinear structural equation models, mixture models, and multilevel structural equation models. Part Six: Longitudinal Models: covers the analysis of longitudinal data via mixed modeling, time series analysis and event history analysis. Part Seven: Specialized Models: covers specific topics including the analysis of neuro-imaging data and functional data-analysis.

Clinical Judgment A Critical Appraisal

Author: H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400993994
Size: 15,95 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 398
Download

Over a period of a year, the symposium on clinical judgment has taken shape as a volume devoted to the analysis of how knowledge claims are framed in medicine and how choices of treatment are made. We hope it will afford the reader, whether layman, physician or philosopher, a useful perspective on the process of knowing what occurs in medicine; and that the results of the dis cussions at the Fifth Symposium on Philosophy and Medicine will lead to a better understanding of how philosophy and medicine can usefully challenge each other. As the interchange between physicians, philosophers, nurses and psychologists recorded in the major papers, the commentaries and the round table discussion shows, these issues are truly interdisciplinary. In particular, they have shown that members of the health care professions have much to learn about themselves from philosophers as well as much of interest to engage philosophers. By making the structure of medical reasoning more apparent to its users, philosophers can show health care practitioners how better to master clinical judgment and how better to focus it towards the goods and values medicine wishes to pursue. Becoming clearer about the process of knowing can in short teach us how to know better and how to learn more efficiently. The result can be more than (though it surely would be enough!) a powerful intellectual insight into a major cultural endeavor, medicine.

Amstat News

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 14,28 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 668
Download


The British National Bibliography

Author: Arthur James Wells
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 16,71 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 308
Download


Judgment Under Uncertainty

Author: Daniel Kahneman
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521284141
Size: 11,34 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 296
Download

The thirty-five chapters in this book describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Individual chapters discuss the representativeness and availability heuristics, problems in judging covariation and control, overconfidence, multistage inference, social perception, medical diagnosis, risk perception, and methods for correcting and improving judgments under uncertainty. About half of the chapters are edited versions of classic articles; the remaining chapters are newly written for this book. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas of research and application rather than describing single experimental studies. This book will be useful to a wide range of students and researchers, as well as to decision makers seeking to gain insight into their judgments and to improve them.

Issues In Neuroscience Research And Application 2011 Edition

Author:
Editor: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464963606
Size: 11,53 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 226
Download

Issues in Neuroscience Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Neuroscience Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Neuroscience Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Neuroscience Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Neuroscience Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.