De Orthographia Consuetudini Non Serviente Commentatio

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Brutinae Quaestiones

Autore: Petrus Ramus
Editore: Routledge
ISBN: 9781880393000
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Cicero had written seven books on rhetoric, but Ramus chose Orator for the attack which had been inevitable since his original denunciation of Cicero's rhetoric in 1543. There are probably two reasons for this. The first is that he was thus able to enter into the widespread controversy over "Ciceronianism." More importantly, this choice enabled him to concentrate on the one Ciceronian work closest to his own personal view of rhetoric. For Ramus, rhetoric was a matter only of the exterior elements of style and delivery and Orator concentrates on style. It is set in the form of a letter to Cicero's friend Marcus Junius Brutus responding to Brutus's reaction to Cicero's earlier history of Roman oratory -- titled Brutus after its dedicatee. None of Cicero's other six works on rhetoric would have provided Ramus the same opportunity to fasten on questions of style the way he does in the Questions of Brutus. Ramus accuses Cicero of trying to prove that he is the "perfect orator" about which Orator is written. He also accuses him of being merely an unthinking follower of Aristotle. The basic assault, however, is syllogistic. Ramus reduces Cicero's ideas to syllogistic form to demonstrate their error and inconsistency. Throughout, Ramus continues to claim that Cicero does not know the true province of rhetoric. Moreover, he argues that what is found "muddled and confused in unfathomable darkness" in this one book is also true of all of Cicero's other books. Thus, The Questions of Brutus becomes a wide-ranging polemic like his attack on Aristotle. There are numerous rhetorical questions, apostrophes, exclamations, syllogistic analyses, and a great many digressions. Basically Ramus follows the order of Cicero's Orator, though there are occasional backward-forward references as well. Ramus does not, however, use the quotation-plus-interpretation method employed in the commentaries on his orations. Instead he takes up concepts rather than quotations, usually using specific citations only when he wishes to attack Cicero's language on some point. Therefore, this book is self-contained: Ramus states Cicero's position, then his own.

Studies In Renaissance Thought And Letters

Autore: Paul Oskar Kristeller
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Molecular Biological Methods For Bacillus

Autore: Colin R. Harwood
Editore: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471923930
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Molecular Biological Methods for Bacillus Edited by C. R. Harwood, Department of Microbiology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK and S. M. Cutting, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, USA This volume represents the first major attempt to produce a compendium of the experimental methods used for the analysis of Bacillus, one of the most important procaryotic genera. Since the pioneering work on the transformation and genetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis by John Spizizen and his colleagues in the late 1950s this microorganism has been extensively studied and is now one of the best understood. More than forty of the world’s leading researchers in the field have generously contributed experimental procedures—devised and used in their laboratories—to this book. The aim throughout has been to present methods as simple step-by-step protocols which have been thoroughly tried and tested. The context in which the methods are used is discussed in detail and relevant information provided on the physiology and genetics of Bacillus. In addition valuable support is provided in the form of troubleshooting tips and advice on safety, the preparation of reagents, and the use of equipment. The book will be invaluable to those working with the genus Bacillus and related genera—both established researchers and those wishing to use this important microorganism for the first time.