De Orthographia Consuetudini Non Serviente Commentatio

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Civilrechtsfalle Ohne Entscheidungen

Autore: Rudolf von Jhering
ISBN: 9781296285128
Grandezza: 76,72 MB
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Vista: 7107
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Brutinae Quaestiones

Autore: Petrus Ramus
Editore: Routledge
ISBN: 9781880393000
Grandezza: 76,81 MB
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Vista: 1958
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Cicero had written seven books on rhetoric, but Ramus chose Orator for the attack which had been inevitable since his original denunciation of Cicero's rhetoric in 1543. There are probably two reasons for this. The first is that he was thus able to enter into the widespread controversy over "Ciceronianism." More importantly, this choice enabled him to concentrate on the one Ciceronian work closest to his own personal view of rhetoric. For Ramus, rhetoric was a matter only of the exterior elements of style and delivery and Orator concentrates on style. It is set in the form of a letter to Cicero's friend Marcus Junius Brutus responding to Brutus's reaction to Cicero's earlier history of Roman oratory -- titled Brutus after its dedicatee. None of Cicero's other six works on rhetoric would have provided Ramus the same opportunity to fasten on questions of style the way he does in the Questions of Brutus. Ramus accuses Cicero of trying to prove that he is the "perfect orator" about which Orator is written. He also accuses him of being merely an unthinking follower of Aristotle. The basic assault, however, is syllogistic. Ramus reduces Cicero's ideas to syllogistic form to demonstrate their error and inconsistency. Throughout, Ramus continues to claim that Cicero does not know the true province of rhetoric. Moreover, he argues that what is found "muddled and confused in unfathomable darkness" in this one book is also true of all of Cicero's other books. Thus, The Questions of Brutus becomes a wide-ranging polemic like his attack on Aristotle. There are numerous rhetorical questions, apostrophes, exclamations, syllogistic analyses, and a great many digressions. Basically Ramus follows the order of Cicero's Orator, though there are occasional backward-forward references as well. Ramus does not, however, use the quotation-plus-interpretation method employed in the commentaries on his orations. Instead he takes up concepts rather than quotations, usually using specific citations only when he wishes to attack Cicero's language on some point. Therefore, this book is self-contained: Ramus states Cicero's position, then his own.

Methodus Plantarum Nova

Autore: John Ray
ISBN: 9780903874465
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John Ray (1627–1705) contributed severalimportant concepts to the field of plant taxonomy: first, the division of plantsinto groups based on seed leaves (Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae); second,the differentiation between flowering and flowerless plants; third, the use ofthe term “petal” to designate the “leaf ” of the flower; fourth, the use ofstamens and pistils in plant classification, anticipating the emphasis of Linnaeus.Ray worked towards a natural classification of plants that was based on morethan one “data set”: classification should not use a single character butideally should make use of as much information as was available for as manyparts of the plant as possible. In this way his work foreshadowed that ofLamarck, de Jussieu and de Candolle in France, and thenBentham and Hooker in England. He worked to popularise the study of plants, to bringit to the level of science, and to systematise previous knowledge of plants into a workablewhole. If not for the innovative use of binomials by Linnaeus, perhaps John Raymight have been more widely remembered as the true “Father of Plant Taxonomy”. Ray sets out his ‘new’ classification ofplants in MethodusPlantarum Nova and discusses some basic aspects of theirbiology. This book isits first English translation: thoughoccupying an important place in the history ofBotany,hithertoit has been available only in its original language, Latin.

Early Travels In Palestine

Autore: Thomas Wright
Grandezza: 76,95 MB
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Facing The Ocean

Autore: Barry Cunliffe
Editore: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780192853554
Grandezza: 15,82 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 1869
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In this highly illustrated book Barry Cunliffe focuses on the western rim of Europe--the Atlantic facade--an area stretching from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Isles of Shetland.We are shown how original and inventive the communities were, and how they maintained their own distinctive identities often over long spans of time. Covering the period from the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, c. 8000 BC, to the voyages of discovery c. AD 1500, he uses this last half millennium more as a well-studied test case to help the reader better understand what went before. The beautiful illustrations show how this picturesque part of Europe has many striking physical similarities. Old hard rocks confront the ocean creating promontories and capes familiar to sailors throughout the millennia. Land's End, Finistere, Finisterra--until the end of the fifteenth century this was where the world ended in a turmoil of ocean beyond which there was nothing. To the people who lived in these remote placesthe sea was their means of communication and those occupying similar locations were their neighbours. The communities frequently developed distinctive characteristics intensifying aspects of their culture the more clearly to distinguish themselves from their in-land neighbours. But there is an added level of interest here in that the sea provided a vital link with neighbouring remote-place communities encouraging a commonality of interest and allegiances. Even today the Bretons see themselvesas distinct from the French but refer to the Irish, Welsh, and Galicians as their brothers and cousins. Archaeological evidence from the prehistoric period amply demonstrates the bonds which developed and intensified between these isolated communities and helped to maintain a shared but distinctive Atlantic identity.