Doing Good Better

Author: William MacAskill
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 0698191102
Size: 13,13 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 972
Download

Most of us want to make a difference. We donate our time and money to charities and causes we deem worthy, choose careers we consider meaningful, and patronize businesses and buy products we believe make the world a better place. Unfortunately, we often base these decisions on assumptions and emotions rather than facts. As a result, even our best intentions often lead to ineffective—and sometimes downright harmful—outcomes. How can we do better? While a researcher at Oxford, trying to figure out which career would allow him to have the greatest impact, William MacAskill confronted this problem head on. He discovered that much of the potential for change was being squandered by lack of information, bad data, and our own prejudice. As an antidote, he and his colleagues developed effective altruism, a practical, data-driven approach that allows each of us to make a tremendous difference regardless of our resources. Effective altruists believe that it’s not enough to simply do good; we must do good better. At the core of this philosophy are five key questions that help guide our altruistic decisions: How many people benefit, and by how much? Is this the most effective thing I can do? Is this area neglected? What would have happened otherwise? What are the chances of success, and how good would success be? By applying these questions to real-life scenarios, MacAskill shows how many of our assumptions about doing good are misguided. For instance, he argues one can potentially save more lives by becoming a plastic surgeon rather than a heart surgeon; measuring overhead costs is an inaccurate gauge of a charity’s effectiveness; and, it generally doesn’t make sense for individuals to donate to disaster relief. MacAskill urges us to think differently, set aside biases, and use evidence and careful reasoning rather than act on impulse. When we do this—when we apply the head and the heart to each of our altruistic endeavors—we find that each of us has the power to do an astonishing amount of good. From the Hardcover edition.

Author: Steven D. Levitt
Editor: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 9960543935
Size: 13,66 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 330
Download

أيهما أشد خطراً، المسدس أم حوض السباحة؟ ما هي الأشياء المشتركة بين معلمي المدارس ومصارعي السومو؟ لماذا ما يزال تجار المخدرات يعيشون مع أمهاتهم؟ ما هو مقدار اهتمام الوالدين حقاً؟ ما هو تأثير قضية «رو» و«ويد» في جرائم العنف؟ قد لا تبدو هذه الأسئلة مثل الأسئلة النمطية التي يسألها الاقتصادي، لكن ستيفن د. ليفيت ليس اقتصادياً نمطياً؛ إنه عالم شجاع أكثر من أي شيء آخر، يدرس المادة والأحاجي في الحياة اليومية ــ من الغش والجريمة إلى الرياضة وتربية الأطفال ــ وتقوم استنتاجاته عادة على قلب الحكمة التقليدية رأساً على عقب. وغالباً ما يبدأ بتل كبير من المعطيات وبسؤال بسيط لم يطرح من قبل. إنه يهتم ببعض هذه الأسئلة مثل قضايا الحياة والموت، وبعضها الآخر ذو ميزات استثنائية دون شك. وهكذا يحتوي هذا الكتاب على حقل جديد من الدراسة، وهو (الاقتصاد العجيب). ومن خلال سرده للقصص الآسرة ومن النظرة العميقة غير المباشرة، يبين ليفيت وزميله ستيفن ج. دوبنر أن الاقتصاد -في جذوره- دراسة للحوافز ـــ كيف يحصل الناس على ما يريدون أو يحتاجون، لاسيما عندما يريد الناس الآخرون الشيء ذاته أو يحتاجونه. في كتابهما (الاقتصاد العجيب)، يشرع المؤلفان في استكشاف الجانب الخفي ـــ من كل شيء؛ الأعمال الداخلية لعصابة مخدرات، وحقيقة الوسطاء العقاريين، وأساطير تمويل الحملات. وقصص الغش لدى معلمي المدارس. وأسرار جمعية كوكلوكس كلان (العرقية). ومن هنا فإذا كانت الأخلاق تمثل كيف نريد للعالم أن يسير، فإن الاقتصاد يمثل كيف يعمل العالم فعلاً. صحيح إن قراء هذا الكتاب سيتسلحون بقصص وأحاجٍ تكفي لتروى في آلاف الحفلات، لكن كتاب (الاقتصاد العجيب) يستطيع أن يقدم أكثر من ذلك، إنه يعيد تعريف الطريقة التي ننظر بها إلى العالم الحديث تعريفاً حرفياً. العبيكان للنشر

Critical Terms For Animal Studies

Author: Lori Gruen
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022635556X
Size: 19,59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 480
Download

Animal Studies is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field devoted to examining, understanding, and critically evaluating the complex relationships between humans and other animals. Scholarship in Animal Studies draws on a variety of methodologies to explore these multi-faceted relationships in order to help us understand the ways in which other animals figure in our lives and we in theirs. Bringing together the work of a group of internationally distinguished scholars, the contribution in Critical Terms for Animal Studies offers distinct voices and diverse perspectives, exploring significant concepts and asking important questions. How do we take non-human animals seriously, not simply as metaphors for human endeavors, but as subjects themselves? What do we mean by anthropocentrism, captivity, empathy, sanctuary, and vulnerability, and what work do these and other critical terms do in Animal Studies? Sure to become an indispensable reference for the field, Critical Terms for Animal Studies not only provides a framework for thinking about animals as subjects of their own experiences, but also serves as a touchstone to help us think differently about our conceptions of what it means to be human, and the impact human activities have on the more than human world.

Batman And Ethics

Author: Mark D. White
Editor: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN: 1119038022
Size: 15,52 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 622
Download

Batman has been one of the world’s most beloved superheroes since his first appearance in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Clad in his dark cowl and cape, he has captured the imagination of millions with his single-minded mission to create a better world for the people of Gotham City by fighting crime, making use of expert detective skills, high-tech crime-fighting gadgets, and an extensive network of sidekicks and partners. But why has this self-made hero enjoyed such enduring popularity? And why are his choices so often the subject of intense debate among his fans and philosophers alike? Batman and Ethics goes behind the mask to shed new light on the complexities and contradictions of the Dark Knight’s moral code. From the logic behind his aversion to killing to the moral status of vigilantism and his use of torture in pursuit of justice (or perhaps revenge), Batman’s ethical precepts are compelling but often inconsistent and controversial. Philosopher and pop culture expert Mark D. White uses the tools of moral philosophy to track Batman’s most striking ethical dilemmas and decisions across his most prominent storylines from the early 1970s through the launch of the New 52, and suggests how understanding the mercurial moral character of the caped crusader might help us reconcile our own. A thought-provoking and entertaining journey through four decades of Batman’s struggles and triumphs in time for the franchise’s 80th anniversary, Batman and Ethics is a perfect gateway into the complex questions of moral philosophy through a focused character study of this most famous of fictional superheroes.

The Ethics Of Global Poverty

Author: Scott Wisor
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317574699
Size: 19,35 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 902
Download

The Ethics of Global Poverty offers a thorough introduction to the ethical issues surrounding global poverty. It addresses important questions such as: What is poverty and how is it measured? What are the causes of poverty? Do wealthy individuals have a moral duty to reduce global poverty? Should aid go to those who are most in need, or to those who are easiest to help? Is it morally wrong to buy from sweatshops? Is it morally good to provide micro-finance? Featuring case studies throughout, this textbook is essential reading for students studying global ethics or global poverty who want an understanding of the moral issues that arise from vast inequalities of wealth and power in a highly interconnected world.

80 000 Hours

Author: Benjamin J. Todd
Editor:
ISBN: 9781537324005
Size: 12,18 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 520
Download

Find a fulfilling career that tackles the world's most pressing problems, using this guide based on five years of research alongside academics at Oxford. You have about 80,000 hours in your career: 40 hours a week, 50 weeks a year, for 40 years. This means your choice of career is one of the most important decisions you'll ever make. Make the right choices, and you can help solve some of the world's most pressing problems, as well as have a more rewarding, interesting life. For such an important decision, however, there's surprisingly little good advice out there. Most career advice focuses on things like how to write a CV, and much of the rest is just (misleading) platitudes like "follow your passion". Most people we speak to don't even use career advice - they just speak to friends and try to figure it out for themselves. When it comes to helping others with your career the advice usually assumes you need to work as a teacher, doctor, charity worker, and so on, even though these paths might not be a good fit for you, and were not what the highest-impact people in history did. This guide is based on five years of research conducted alongside academics at the University of Oxford. It aims to help you find a career you enjoy, you're good at, and that tackles the world's most pressing problems. It covers topics like: 1. What makes for a dream job, and why "follow your passion" can be misleading. 2. Why the most effective ways to make a difference aren't always the obvious ones like working at a charity, or becoming a doctor. 3. How to compare global problems, like climate change and education, in terms of their scale and urgency. 4. How to discover and develop your strengths. It's also full of practical tips and tools. You'll come away with a plan to use your 80,000 hours in a way that's fulfilling and high impact. What people are saying "Based on evidence and good sense, not platitudes" - Steven Pinker, New York Times bestselling author Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. "This incredible group is helping people have a greater social impact with their careers." - Sue Desmond-Hellmann, CEO of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. "Every college grad should read this" - Tim Urban, creator of Wait But Why. Read more online This book is based on the free guide you can find on the 80,000 Hours website, where you can find many more articles and our most up-to-date content. All profits from the book are used to fund 80,000 Hours, expanding our research and enabling us to reach more people. About the authors 80,000 Hours is an independent non-profit founded in Oxford in 2011. It performs research into career choice, and provides online and in-person advice. Benjamin Todd is the CEO and co-founder of 80,000 Hours. He grew the organization from a student society at Oxford to a non-profit that's raised $1.3m in donations, and has 100,000 monthly readers. He has a Master's degree in Physics and Philosophy from Oxford, and speaks Chinese, badly. Ben is advised by the rest of the 80,000 Hours team, including Professor Will MacAskill, author of Doing Good Better, co-founder of the Effective Altruism movement, and one of the youngest tenured professors of philosophy in the world.

Author: Edward Wadie Said
Editor:
ISBN: 9789776174214
Size: 10,42 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 746
Download


The Support Group Method Training Pack

Author: Barbara Maines
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 1446204049
Size: 20,45 MB
Format: PDF
Read: 328
Download

Click here to download a video clip from the DVD This new book and cd-rom provides a comprehensive training course which follows the structure of the hundreds of training days that Barbara and George have run around the world since 1991. The programme includes: - clarification of the terms 'bully' and 'victim' - a challenge to traditional practices - the steps of the support group method - what makes it work, including the voices of young people - research findings. The pack contains full facilitator notes with a PowerPoint presentation, video excerpts and all activity pages. It provides a challenging course which helps participants to learn and understand effective responses to bullying. By the end of the presentation the participants will have the opportunity to consider aspects of the programme and place it into the context of the current emphasis on restorative methodology, peer support and the social and emotional aspects of behavioural learning.

Psychology

Author: Charles G. Morris
Editor: Prentice Hall
ISBN:
Size: 14,27 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 452
Download

Psychology: The Core presents a scientific, accurate, and thorough overview of the essential concepts of psychology and helps readers see the exciting applications of these concepts in real life. The printed textbook, Psychology: The Core, covers the core content of psychology---the essentials that every introductory psychology student should know. It includes study aids students find most useful---concept maps, note-taking features, and a laminated study card highlighting the most challenging topics in introductory psychology. The website www.PsychologyTheCore.com , provides more in-depth treatment of topics, up-to-date statistics, cutting edge research, simulations, video clips, and real-world applications of psychology. A monthly blog provides an opportunity for the authors to post interesting links and new research findings and to respond to questions from readers. Annual updates to the site will ensure that readers have access to all the latest findings.

Author: كارل ماركس
Editor: ktab INC.
ISBN:
Size: 19,93 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 297
Download

طُبع الكتاب الذي كان عنوانه الرسمي "بؤس الفلسفة: رد على فلسفة البؤس لبرودون في بروكسل، بلجيكا في أوائل يوليو 1847. وقد كتب الكتاب باللغة الفرنسية لضرب هدفه على نحو وثيق، وليكون الجناس في العنوان واضحا بشكل لا لبس فيه. واعتبرت الدائرة السياسية حول ماركس، مثل الرابطة الشيوعية، الكتابَ جزءا أساسيا من برنامجهم المعاصر، إذ أنه حدد وجهات نظر الرابطة من الآراء التي تبناها برودون وأتباعه.