Introduction To Computational Genomics

Author: Nello Cristianini
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139460153
Size: 10,64 MB
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Where did SARS come from? Have we inherited genes from Neanderthals? How do plants use their internal clock? The genomic revolution in biology enables us to answer such questions. But the revolution would have been impossible without the support of powerful computational and statistical methods that enable us to exploit genomic data. Many universities are introducing courses to train the next generation of bioinformaticians: biologists fluent in mathematics and computer science, and data analysts familiar with biology. This readable and entertaining book, based on successful taught courses, provides a roadmap to navigate entry to this field. It guides the reader through key achievements of bioinformatics, using a hands-on approach. Statistical sequence analysis, sequence alignment, hidden Markov models, gene and motif finding and more, are introduced in a rigorous yet accessible way. A companion website provides the reader with Matlab-related software tools for reproducing the steps demonstrated in the book.

Systematic Approaches To Argument By Analogy

Author: Henrique Jales Ribeiro
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319063340
Size: 17,74 MB
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The present volume assembles a relevant set of studies of argument by analogy, which address this topic in a systematic fashion, either from an essentially theoretical perspective or from the perspective of it being applied to different fields like politics, linguistics, literature, law, medicine, science in general and philosophy. All result from original research conducted by their authors for this publication. Thus, broadly speaking, this is an exception which we find worthy of occupying a special place in the sphere of the bibliography on the argument by analogy. In effect, most of the contexts of the publications on this topic focus on specific areas, for example everyday discourse, science or law theory, while underestimating or sometimes even ignoring other interdisciplinary scopes, as is the case of literature, medicine or philosophy. The idiosyncrasy of this volume is that the reader and the researcher may follow the development of different theoretical outlooks on argument by analogy, while measuring the scope of its (greater or lesser) application to the aforementioned areas as a whole.

On Law And Justice

Author: Alf Ross
Editor: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd.
ISBN: 1584774886
Size: 10,72 MB
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Ross, Alf. On Law and Justice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959. xi, 383 pp. Reprint available December 2004 by the Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 1-58477-488-6. Cloth. $90. * In this influential and oft-cited study Ross discounted the theories of natural law, positivism and legal realism. In their stead, he proposed the abandonment of "ought-propositions" for the "is-propositions" employed by other empirical sciences, thereby envisioning lawyers that serve merely as "rational technologists." Less bound by tradition, and traditional notions of justice, jurisprudence then becomes "not only a beautiful mental activity per se, but also an instrument which may benefit any lawyer who wants to understand what he is doing and why" (Preface).

Herbert Rosenfeld At Work

Author: Herbert A. Rosenfeld
Editor: Karnac Books
ISBN: 1780497261
Size: 16,58 MB
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Between 1978 and 1985 Dr Herbert Rosenfeld was one of a number of British analysts invited by a group of Societa di Psicoanalisi Italiani members to conduct a series of seminars and supervisions for the purpose of deepening and refining that group's clinical skills and theoretical understanding. This book is an illuminating record of that encounter, and a warm tribute to the significant influence of Rosenfeld's contribution.It is divided into two parts - 'Theoretical' and 'Clinical', and based on a selection of verbatim transcripts recorded at the time. These transcripts, with their dialogical form, succeed in capturing much of the specificity of oral exchange, and thus convey a strong impression of Rosenfeld the man as much as clinician or theoretician.Rosenfeld remained to the end a continuously creative analyst and these 'last thoughts' provide the reader with ample evidence of his undimmed gifts. His subtle intuitions, meticulously close attention to both patient's and analyst's interpretations, and fine appreciation of the intricacies of the analytic encounter, are abundantly present.

Argumentation Schemes

Author: Douglas Walton
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316583139
Size: 10,74 MB
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This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined in the last chapter. It provides a systematic and comprehensive account, with notation suitable for computational applications that increasingly make use of argumentation schemes.

Normative Systems

Author: Carlos E. Alchourron
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 9783211810194
Size: 17,33 MB
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In consequence of an increased interest in problems relating to human action, normative concepts have been much discussed by philosophers and logicians in the past twenty years. Deontic logic, which deals with the normative use of language and such normative concepts as obligation, prohibition and permission, has become one of the most intensively cultivated areas of formal logic. Important investigations have been carried out which have shed considerable light on various aspects of the normative phenomenon and a great number of different systems of deontic logic have been developed. This progressive proliferation of deontic logics not only shows the great interest of logicians in normative discourse, but also reflects a basic perplexity: the lack of suitable criteria of adequacy for the interpretation of deontic calculi and hence difficulty in decid ing which of the systems provides the best reconstruction of the underlying normative concepts and can therefore be applied with the most fruitful results. This difficulty is so great that some authors have even expressed doubts about the practical usefulness of deontic logic. One of the sources of this perplexity lies in the absence of a well established pre-analytical basis for formal studies. It is sometimes even uncertain what the intuitive notions are that deontic logicians intend to reconstruct. In talking about obligations, prohibitions and permissions, they usually have in mind moral norms. But the choice of moral norm as an explicandum for the construction of a logic of norms has several disadvantages.

In Praise Of Meekness

Author: Norberto Bobbio
Editor: Polity
ISBN: 9780745623085
Size: 20,12 MB
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In this important volume, the leading political theorist and philosopher Norberto Bobbio confronts some of the most enduring moral questions of our time. Written over the last two decades of the twentieth century, the essays in this volume develop some of the central themes in Bobbio's moral and political philosophy. They also reflect his longstanding civil commitment to liberty, democracy, peace and equality. The opening essay, 'In praise of meekness', analyses the virtue of meekness in its individual and social aspects. It identifies the meek person with the nonviolent, and meekness with the refusal to exercise violence against anyone. Meekness, therefore, is a non-political virtue - it is the antithesis of politics. The volume also addresses the persistent classical problem of 'reason of state', as well as the more contemporary questions of tolerance and truth, racism, prejudice and ethics. The problem of evil in the modern world is also discussed. All the essays display the sensitivity and depth of understanding that characterize Bobbio's writings on current debates and historical controversies. The book will be invaluable reading for all students and scholars of politics, as well as those who are interested in the debates surrounding morals, ethics and law.

Argument Types And Fallacies In Legal Argumentation

Author: Thomas Bustamante
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319161482
Size: 15,66 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides theoretical tools for evaluating the soundness of arguments in the context of legal argumentation. It deals with a number of general argument types and their particular use in legal argumentation. It provides detailed analyses of argument from authority, argument ad hominem, argument from ignorance, slippery slope argument and other general argument types. Each of these argument types can be used to construct arguments that are sound as well as arguments that are unsound. To evaluate an argument correctly one must be able to distinguish the sound instances of a certain argument type from its unsound instances. This book promotes the development of theoretical tools for this task.

Oxford Studies In Philosophy Of Law

Author: Leslie Green
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199679827
Size: 17,64 MB
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Oxford Studies in the Philosophy of Law is an annual forum for new philosophical work on law. The essays range widely over general jurisprudence (the nature of law, adjudication, and legal reasoning), philosophical foundations of specific areas of law (from criminal to international law), and other philosophical topics relating to legal theory.

Logic In The Theory And Practice Of Lawmaking

Author: Michał Araszkiewicz
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319195751
Size: 16,97 MB
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This book presents the current state of the art regarding the application of logical tools to the problems of theory and practice of lawmaking. It shows how contemporary logic may be useful in the analysis of legislation, legislative drafting and legal reasoning concerning different contexts of law making. Elaborations of the process of law making have variously emphasised its political, social or economic aspects. Yet despite strong interest in logical analyses of law, questions remains about the role of logical tools in law making. This volume attempts to bridge that gap, or at least to narrow it, drawing together some important research problems—and some possible solutions—as seen through the work of leading contemporary academics. The volume encompasses 20 chapters written by authors from 16 countries and it presents diversified views on the understanding of logic (from strict mathematical approaches to the informal, argumentative ones) and differentiated choices concerning the aspects of law making taken into account. The book presents a broad set of perspectives, insights and results into the emerging field of research devoted to the logical analysis of the area of creation of law. How does logic inform lawmaking? Are legal systems consistent and complete? How can legal rules be represented by means of formal calculi and visualization techniques? Does the structure of statutes or of legal systems resemble the structure of deductive systems? What are the logical relations between the basic concepts of jurisprudence that constitute the system of law? How are theories of legal interpretation relevant to the process of legislation? How might the statutory text be analysed by means of contemporary computer programs? These and other questions, ranging from the theoretical to the immediately practical, are addressed in this definitive collection.