Making Money

Author: Christine Desan
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191025399
Size: 20,78 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Money travels the modern world in disguise. It looks like a convention of human exchange - a commodity like gold or a medium like language. But its history reveals that money is a very different matter. It is an institution engineered by political communities to mark and mobilize resources. As societies change the way they create money, they change the market itself - along with the rules that structure it, the politics and ideas that shape it, and the benefits that flow from it. One particularly dramatic transformation in money's design brought capitalism to England. For centuries, the English government monopolized money's creation. The Crown sold people coin for a fee in exchange for silver and gold. 'Commodity money' was a fragile and difficult medium; the first half of the book considers the kinds of exchange and credit it invited, as well as the politics it engendered. Capitalism arrived when the English reinvented money at the end of the 17th century. When it established the Bank of England, the government shared its monopoly over money creation for the first time with private investors, institutionalizing their self-interest as the pump that would produce the money supply. The second half of the book considers the monetary revolution that brought unprecedented possibilities and problems. The invention of circulating public debt, the breakdown of commodity money, the rise of commercial bank currency, and the coalescence of ideological commitments that came to be identified with the Gold Standard - all contributed to the abundant and unstable medium that is modern money. All flowed as well from a collision between the individual incentives and public claims at the heart of the system. The drama had constitutional dimension: money, as its history reveals, is a mode of governance in a material world. That character undermines claims in economics about money's neutrality. The monetary design innovated in England would later spread, producing the global architecture of modern money.

Before Babylon Beyond Bitcoin

Author: David Birch
Editor: London Publishing Partnership
ISBN: 190799467X
Size: 15,26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Technology is changing money: it has been transformed from physical objects to intangible information. With the arrival of smart cards, mobile phones and Bitcoin it has become easier than ever to create new forms of money. Crucially, money is also inextricably connected with our identities. Your card or phone is a security device that can identify you – and link information about you to your money. To see where these developments might be taking us, David Birch looks back over the history of money, spanning thousands of years. He sees in the past, both recent and ancient, evidence for several possible futures. Looking further back to a world before cash and central banks, there were multiple ‘currencies’ operating at the level of communities, and the use of barter for transactions. Perhaps technology will take us back to the future, a future that began back in 1971, when money became a claim backed by reputation rather than by physical commodities of any kind. Since then, money has been bits. The author shows that these phenomena are not only possible in the future, but already upon us. We may well want to make transactions in Tesco points, Air Miles, Manchester United pounds, Microsoft dollars, Islamic e-gold or Cornish e-tin. The use of cash is already in decline, and is certain to vanish from polite society. The newest technologies will take money back to its origins: a substitute for memory, a record of mutual debt obligations within multiple overlapping communities. This time though, money will be smart. It will be money that reflects the values of the communities that produced it. Future money will know where it has been, who has been using it and what they have been using it for.

Capitalism

Author: Jürgen Kocka
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474271065
Size: 17,61 MB
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Capitalism has been a controversial concept. In the second half of the 20th century, many historians have either not used the concept at all, or only in passing. Many regarded the term as too broad, holistic and vague or too value-loaded, ideological and polemic. This volume brings together leading scholars to explore why the term has recently experienced a comeback and assess how useful the term can be in application to social and economic history. The contributors discuss whether and how the history of capitalism enables us to ask new questions, further explore unexhausted sources and discover new connections between previously unrelated phenomena. The chapters address case studies drawn from around the world, giving attention to Europe, Africa and beyond. This is a timely reassessment of a crucial concept, which will be of great interest to scholars and students of economic history.

American Capitalism

Author: Sven Beckert
Editor: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231546068
Size: 12,39 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The United States has long epitomized capitalism. From its enterprising shopkeepers, wildcat banks, violent slave plantations, huge industrial working class, and raucous commodities trade to its world-spanning multinationals, its massive factories, and the centripetal power of New York in the world of finance, America has come to symbolize capitalism for two centuries and more. But an understanding of the history of American capitalism is as elusive as it is urgent. What does it mean to make capitalism a subject of historical inquiry? What is its potential across multiple disciplines, alongside different methodologies, and in a range of geographic and chronological settings? And how does a focus on capitalism change our understanding of American history? American Capitalism presents a sampling of cutting-edge research from prominent scholars. These broad-minded and rigorous essays venture new angles on finance, debt, and credit; women’s rights; slavery and political economy; the racialization of capitalism; labor beyond industrial wage workers; and the production of knowledge, including the idea of the economy, among other topics. Together, the essays suggest emerging themes in the field: a fascination with capitalism as it is made by political authority, how it is claimed and contested by participants, how it spreads across the globe, and how it can be reconceptualized without being universalized. A major statement for a wide-open field, this book demonstrates the breadth and scope of the work that the history of capitalism can provoke.

Author:
Editor:
ISBN: 9789953825618
Size: 14,42 MB
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Author: عبد الرحمن بن محمد ابن خلدون
Editor:
ISBN: 9789772380305
Size: 19,25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Author: Willem Middelkoop
Editor: العبيكان للنشر
ISBN: 6035038654
Size: 15,10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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يبدو أنّ تحوّل النظام المالي وشيك، على أنّ الحاجة كبيرة إلى آلية جديدة تنظمه قبل حلول 2020م، لقد أدركتْ الولايات المتحدة الخسارة التي سيمنى بها الدولار وموقعه كونه العملةٍ الاحتياطيةٍ للعالم منذ بداية أزمة الائتمان، وباشرت بالتخطيط لتحوّلٍ في سياساتها النقدية؛ سيأتي هذا التحوّل بما يضمن بقاء الولايات المتحدة في الصدارة وفقاً للمحللين؛ على أنّ النظام النقدي الجديد سيتيح لعملاتٍ أخرى مثل اليورو والرنمينبي الصيني أداء أدوارٍ أكثر أهميةً على الصعيد العالمي. وفي إطار الاستعداد للتحول القادم سيعود الذهب إلى موقعه الرائد كونه الركيزة الأساس في النظام المالي العالمي في المرحلة المقبلة، إذ تشير التوقعات إلى ارتفاع سعر الأونصة ليصبح 7,000 دولار. إنّ نظرةً على الماضي كفيلة بإدراك الغشاوة الأمريكية المحيطة بالذهب والدولار منذ زمن طويل، لكن قوى صاعدة مثل الصين وروسيا تراكمان كميات هائلة من احتياطات الذهب في مسعى منهما لأداء دورٍ أكبرٍ في الأيام المقبلة؛ حيث سيشكّل التحول القادم صدمةً لكثيرين، إلا أنّه سيكون في خدمة أولئك الذين حضّروا أنفسهم له بشكل جيد. العبيكان 2016

Leadership Dubai Style

Author: Tommy Weir
Editor:
ISBN: 9780996637527
Size: 17,53 MB
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Every now and then a story comes along that absolutely captures your attention. Dubai is one of those for me, but not just me--millions around the world yearn to come to Dubai. This global supercity, which just five decades ago was a cholera-plagued backwater, might just be the picture of a dream becoming reality. But how, exactly, did this incredible transformation take place? Leadership! But not your run-of-the-mill government leadership, nor typical corporate leadership, nor leadership taught in classrooms. This is Dubai-style leadership.Living and working in Dubai for the past decade, I've seen the leadership impact firsthand. As a leadership scholar and advisor to CEOs, I thought I was perfectly situated to discover the reasons behind Dubai's success. So, in 2008 I set out to discover the city's "secret sauce." Then the Global Financial Crisis hit! Disaster! I pressed the pause button on my research, and, like everyone in the city, held my breath. Well, what happened next confirmed that there is indeed something unique and special here. I spent the next three years researching, interviewing more than two hundred leaders, and identifying the city's leadership secrets, eventually whittling them down to twelve habits. My aim was to develop a replicable model that I could share with my readers--leaders in businesses, governments, and elsewhere. Anyone who is interested in leadership, and in particular achieving exceptional results, can benefit from understanding the twelve habits I outline here. To learn how to lead Dubai style, we need to walk the desert paths of the past to the superhighways of the future. Leadership Dubai Style retraces the city's journey and draws out the leadership habits that emerged over time. For decades Dubai brought in--imported--leading minds from every field to learn from them. Now it's time for Dubai to teach us--to teach us how to lead!

Author: ألدوس هكسلي/مروة سامى/-
Editor: ktab INC.
ISBN: 9776539106
Size: 20,31 MB
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بناية رمادية منخفضة ، لا تزيد عن أربعة و ثلاثين طابقاً فقط كُتبت على مدخلها الرئيسى عبارة : ( مركز وسط لندن للتفريخ و التكييف ) ، و كُتب على درع شعار الدولة العالمية : (المجتمع ، و الهوية، و الاستقرار) تُواجه قاعة الطابق الأرضي الفسيحة جهة الشمال ، ممًا يجعلها باردة طوال الصيف ، وراء ألواح النوافذ الزجاجية ، على النقيض من جو الغرفة الاستوائي ، واخترق شعاع رفيع ثاقب النافذة يبحث بنهم عن جسد متدثر ملقى