Mineral Scales And Deposits

Author: Zahid Amjad
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444627529
Size: 13,87 MB
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Mineral Scales and Deposits: Scientific and Technological Approaches presents, in an integrated way, the problem of scale deposits (precipitation/crystallization of sparingly-soluble salts) in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological. It covers several fundamental aspects, also offering an applications’ perspective, with the ultimate goal of helping the reader better understand the underlying mechanisms of scale formation, while also assisting the user/reader to solve scale-related challenges. It is ideal for scientists/experts working in academia, offering a number of crystal growth topics with an emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, and inhibition/dispersion chemistry, amongst others. In addition, technologists, consultants, plant managers, engineers, and designers working in industry will find a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation. Provides a unique, detailed focus on scale deposits, includes the basic science and mechanisms of scale formation Present a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation Correlates chemical structure to performance Provides guidelines for easy assessment of a particular case, also including solutions Includes an extensive list of industrial case studies for reference

The Science And Technology Of Industrial Water Treatment

Author: Zahid Amjad
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420071459
Size: 12,84 MB
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Mineral scale deposits, corrosion, suspended matter, and microbiological growth are factors that must be controlled in industrial water systems. Research on understanding the mechanisms of these problems has attracted considerable attention in the past three decades as has progress concerning water treatment additives to ameliorate these concerns. The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment provides a comprehensive discussion on the topic from specialists in industry and academia. The book begins with an overview of water chemistry and covers the characteristics of commonly encountered mineral scales. It addresses the formation and control of different scales in various systems and examines new developments in membrane-based separation processes. Next, it provides a detailed account on the operational challenges of reverse osmosis systems and scale control in thermal distillation processes. The text explores corrosion control in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and desalination systems and it discusses the interactions of polyelectrolytes with suspended matter. Includes coverage of a range of bacterial species, including Legionella The book examines bacterial species commonly encountered in water supplies, the mechanisms of biofouling, approaches to control it, and criteria for selecting biocides for water treatment applications. An entire chapter is devoted to Legionella in water systems. Contributors describe various analytical techniques for identifying mineral scales and deposits. They also examine applications of polymers for treating industrial and wastewater systems and give an account of analytical approaches for monitoring various operational parameters and chemicals used to treat industrial water systems. A valuable addition to the library of academic researchers, this volume will also prove useful to those working not only in the water treatment industry, but also to those in petroleum, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and other areas where purity processes are a significant concern.

Mineral Scales In Biological And Industrial Systems

Author: Zahid Amjad
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 146656864X
Size: 13,60 MB
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Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges. Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.

Handbook Of Materials Failure Analysis

Author: Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf
Editor: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0081019297
Size: 12,16 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Construction Industry provides a thorough understanding of the reasons materials fail in certain situations, covering important scenarios including material defects, mechanical failure due to various causes, and improper material selection and/or corrosive environment. The book begins with a general overview of materials failure analysis and its importance, and then logically proceeds from a discussion of the failure analysis process, types of failure analysis, and specific tools and techniques, to chapters on analysis of materials failure from various causes. Failure can occur for several reasons, including: materials defects-related failure, materials design-related failure, or corrosion-related failures. The suitability of the materials to work in a definite environment is an important issue. The results of these failures can be catastrophic in the worst case scenarios, causing loss of life. This important reference covers the most common types of materials failure, and provides possible solutions. Provides the most up-to-date and balanced coverage of failure analysis, combining foundational knowledge and current research on the latest developments and innovations in the field Offers an ideal accompaniment for those interested in materials forensic investigation, failure of materials, static failure analysis, dynamic failure analysis, and fatigue life prediction Presents compelling new case studies from key industries to demonstrate concepts and to assist users in avoiding costly errors that could result in catastrophic events

Novel Materials For Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology

Author: Bryan Morreale
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444632611
Size: 14,54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Materials for Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Technology offers expert insight and experience from recognized authorities in advanced material development in carbon mitigation technology and constitutes a comprehensive guide to the selection and design of a wide range of solvent/sorbent/catalyst used by scientists globally. It appeals to chemical scientists, material scientists and engineers, energy researchers, and environmental scientists from academia, industry, and government in their research directed toward greener, more efficient carbon mitigation processes. Emphasizes material development for carbon mitigation technologies rather than regulations Provides a fundamental understanding of the underpinning science as well as technological approaches to implement carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies Introduces the driving force behind novel materials, their performance and applications for carbon dioxide mitigation Contains figures, tables and an abundance of examples clearly explaining the development, characterization and evaluation of novel carbon mitigation materials Includes hundreds of citations drawing on the most recent published works on the subject Provides a wealth of real-world examples, illustrating how to bridge nano-scale materials to bulk carbon mitigation properties

Mineral Scale Formation And Inhibition

Author: Z. Amjad
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489914005
Size: 20,48 MB
Format: PDF
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This book documents the proceedings of the symposium, "Mineral Scale Formation and Inhibition," held at the American Chemical Society Annual Meeting August 21 to 26, 1994, in Washington, D. C. The symposium, sponsored by the Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, was held in honor of Professor George H. Nancollas for his pioneering work in the field of crystal growth from solution. A total of 30 papers were presented by a wide spectrum of scientists. This book also includes papers that were not presented but were in the symposium program. The separation of a solid by crystallization is one of the oldest and perhaps the most frequently used operations in chemistry. Because of its widespread applicability, in recent years there has been considerable interest exhibited by academic and industrial scientists in understanding the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble salts. The salt systems of great interest in industrial water treatment area (i. e. , cooling and boiler) include carbon ates, sulfates, phosphates, and phosphonates of alkaline earth metals. Although not as common as calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, barium and strontium sulfates have long plagued oil field and gas production operations. The build-up of these sparingly soluble salts on equipment surfaces results in lower heat transfer efficiency, increased corrosion rates, increased pumping costs, etc. In the laundry application, insoluble calcium carbonate tends to accumulate on washed fabrics and washing equipment parts, resulting in undesirable fabric-encrustation or scaling.

Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

Author: Donald Singer
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199742103
Size: 17,65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Policy makers, mineral exploration experts, and regional planners decide how public lands, which may contain undiscovered resources, should be used or whether to invest in exploration for minerals on a regular basis. Decisions are also made concerning mineral resource adequacy, national policy, and regional development. This book makes explicit the factors that can affect a mineral-related decision so that decision-makers can clearly see the possible consequences of their decisions. Based on work done at the US Geological Survey, the authors address the question of the kinds of issues decision-makers are trying to resolve and what forms of information would aid in resolving these issues. The goal of the process discussed is to offer unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined with respect to land use or mineral-resource development. An integrated approach focuses on three assessment parts and the models that support them. Although the concepts presented are straightforward and understandable, in assessments, carefully listening to the experts in other disciplines leads to better products. Navigating through and making sense of QRA requires not just learning rules and equations, but life experiences and common sense. The judgment required to understand which tools to apply are best learned by example and experience. This will be useful to governmental or industrial policy makers, managers of explorations, planners of regional development, and similar decision-makers.

Borates

Author: Donald E. Garrett
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780122760600
Size: 16,35 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This comprehensive reference is the first to cover industrially important borates, from deposits, through chemistry, mining, processing, and applications. The reference work begins with a listing of the 238 currently known borate minerals, their formulas, and properties. It features modern theories on the origin of borate deposits, their molecular structure and detailed descriptions of the world's borate deposits. Garrett describes the fascinating history of the discovery and development of borate deposits with anecdotes of how resourceful operators overcame obstacles in obtaining their minerals. Chapters on mining technology and processing detail the mineral's development from the earliest recorded times up to the sophisticated operations of the present day. The book also contains a comprehensive literature on boron isotope chemistry, their diverse applications, and productions and resource statistics for the world's largest industrial producers. * Functions as a complete reference for geologists, engineers, and consumers of borate products * Includes crystallographic descriptions, solution chemistry, isotopic distributions, and other properties of 170 borate minerals * Provides detailed descriptions of mining and processing methods and economic uses * Includes statistical data on borate production, consumption, prices, and ore reserves for every country of the world * Provides an extensive bibliography * Author is an authority on industrial minerals through many years of consulting and process development work

Mineral Exploration

Author: S. K. Haldar
Editor: Newnes
ISBN: 0123914663
Size: 13,60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Globally, mineral exploration has grown significantly in recent years, driven by the rapid acceleration in prices for gold and diamonds since 2004 and the emergence of a middle class in both China and India—aggressively increased demand. Despite this resurgence, no single book has been published that takes an interdisciplinary approach in addressing the full scope of mineral exploration—from mining and extraction to economic evaluation, policies, sustainability, and environmental impacts. Mineral Exploration: Principles and Applications accomplishes this by presenting each topic with theoretical approaches first followed by specific applications that can be immediately implemented in the field. Presents 16 case studies that allow readers to quickly apply exploration concepts to real-life scenarios in the field Includes more than 200 illustrations and full-color photographs that aid the reader in retaining key procedures and applications Each chapter is structured so that its topic is discussed theoretically first followed by specific applications Combines both theory and application in a multidisciplinary reference that thoroughly addresses the full scope of mineral exploration Authored by an instructor with more than 30 years of experience in the field and a decade as a consultant for commercial mining companies

Introduction To Ore Forming Processes

Author: Laurence Robb
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118687574
Size: 19,49 MB
Format: PDF
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Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specifically on the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits. Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featured throughout providing context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realm of conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution. Artwork from the book is available to instructors at www.blackwellpublishing.com/robb.