Modern Crystallography

Author: A a Chernov
Editor:
ISBN: 9783540115168
Size: 19,96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 973
Download


Modern Crystallography Iii

Author: A.A. Chernov
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818358
Size: 15,81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 673
Download

Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

Multiple Diffraction Of X Rays In Crystals

Author: Chung In-Hang
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642821669
Size: 20,94 MB
Format: PDF
Read: 355
Download

The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms and molecules in crystals and the comparable magnitude of x-ray wavelengths and interatomic distances make it possible for crystals to have more than one set of atomic planes that satisfy Bragg's law and simultaneously diffract an incident x-ray beam - this is the so-called multiple diffraction. This type of diffraction should, in prin ciple, reflect three-dimensional information about the structure of the dif fracting material. Recent progress in understanding this diffraction phenome non and in utilizing this diffraction technique in solid-state and materials sciences reveals the diversity as well as the importance of multiple diffraction of x-rays in application. Unfortunately, there has been no single book written that gives a sys tematic review of this type of diffraction, encompasses its diverse applica tions, and foresees future trends gf development. It is for this purpose that this book is designed. It is hoped that its appearance may possibly turn more attention of condensed-matter physicists, chemists and material scientists toward this particular phenomenon, and that new methods of non-destructive analysis of matter using this diffraction technique may be developed in the future.

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science And Technology

Author:
Editor: Newnes
ISBN: 0080932282
Size: 12,30 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 274
Download

Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts

Two Dimensional Coulomb Liquids And Solids

Author: I͡Uriĭ Petrovich Monarkha
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540207542
Size: 14,17 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Read: 959
Download

The text provides a new and comprehensive review of the remarkable properties of Coulomb liquids and solids formed on the free surface of liquid helium and other interfaces. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the fields of quantum liquids, electronic properties of 2D systems, and solid-state physics.

Point Defects In Semiconductors Ii

Author: J. Bourgoin
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818323
Size: 19,95 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 565
Download

In introductory solid-state physics texts we are introduced to the concept of a perfect crystalline solid with every atom in its proper place. This is a convenient first step in developing the concept of electronic band struc ture, and from it deducing the general electronic and optical properties of crystalline solids. However, for the student who does not proceed further, such an idealization can be grossly misleading. A perfect crystal does not exist. There are always defects. It was recognized very early in the study of solids that these defects often have a profound effect on the real physical properties of a solid. As a result, a major part of scientific research in solid-state physics has,' from the early studies of "color centers" in alkali halides to the present vigorous investigations of deep levels in semiconductors, been devoted to the study of defects. We now know that in actual fact, most of the interest ing and important properties of solids-electrical, optical, mechanical- are determined not so much by the properties of the perfect crystal as by its im perfections.

Site Symmetry In Crystals

Author: Robert Evarestov
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642604889
Size: 18,85 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Read: 213
Download

Site Symmetry in Crystals is the first comprehensive account of the group-theoretical aspects of the site (local) symmetry approach to the study of crystalline solids. The efficiency of this approach, which is based on the concepts of simple induced and band representations of space groups, is demonstrated by considering newly developed applications to electron surface states, point defects, symmetry analysis in lattice dynamics, the theory of second-order phase transitions, and magnetically ordered and non-rigid crystals. Tables of simple induced respresentations are given for the 24 most common space groups, allowing the rapid analysis of electron and phonon states in complex crystals with many atoms in the unit cell.

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author: Peter Rudolph
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Size: 19,46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 735
Download

Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Crystal Growth In Science And Technology

Author: H. Arend
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461305497
Size: 16,87 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 750
Download

Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.

Modern Theory Of Crystal Growth I

Author: A.A. Chernov
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642689388
Size: 15,15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 101
Download

Our understanding of the basic processes of crystal growth has meanwhile reached the level of maturity at least in the phenomenological concepts. This concerns for example the growth of pure crystals from a low-density nutrient phase like vapor or dilute solution with various aspects of pattern formation like spiral and layer growth, facetting and roughening, and the stability of smooth macroscopic shapes, as well as basic mechanisms of impurity incorporation in melt growth of (in this sense) simple materials like silicon or organic model substances. In parallel the experimental techniques to quantitatively ana lyze the various growth mechanisms have also reached a high level of reproducibility and precision, giving reliable tests on theoretical predictions. These basic concepts and appli cations to experiments have been recently reviewed by one of us (A. A. C. ) in "Modern Crystallography III. Crystal Growth" (Springer Series on Solid State Sciences, 1983). It has to be emphasized, however, that for practical applications we are still unable to quantitatively calculate many important parameters like kinetic coefficients from first principles. For mixed systems such as complex oxides, solutions and systems with chemi cal reactions, our degree of understanding is even lower. As a few examples for present achievements we note that experiments with vapour and molecular beam condensation of alkali halides confirmed the qualitatively predicted mechanisms of screw dislocations and two-dimensional nucleation for layer-growth.