On The Origins Of Gender Inequality

Author: Joan Huber
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317255054
Size: 16,51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 414
Download

In our fast-paced world of technology and conveniences, the biological origins of women's inequality can be forgotten. This book offers a richer understanding of gender inequality by explaining a key cause-women's reproductive and lactation patterns. Until about 1900, infants nursed every fifteen minutes on average for two years because very frequent suckling prevented pregnancy. The practice evolved because it maximized infant survival. If a forager child was born before its older sibling could take part in the daily food search, the older one died. This practice persisted until the modern era because until after the discovery of the germ theory of disease, human milk was the only food certain to be unspoiled. Lactation patterns excluded women from the activities that led to political leadership. During the twentieth century the ancient mode declined and women entered the labor market en masse. Joan Huber challenges feminists toward a richer understanding of biological origins of inequality-knowledge that can help women achieve greater equality today.

On The Origins Of Gender Inequality

Author: Joan Huber
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317255062
Size: 12,22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 535
Download

In our fast-paced world of technology and conveniences, the biological origins of women's inequality can be forgotten. This book offers a richer understanding of gender inequality by explaining a key cause-women's reproductive and lactation patterns. Until about 1900, infants nursed every fifteen minutes on average for two years because very frequent suckling prevented pregnancy. The practice evolved because it maximized infant survival. If a forager child was born before its older sibling could take part in the daily food search, the older one died. This practice persisted until the modern era because until after the discovery of the germ theory of disease, human milk was the only food certain to be unspoiled. Lactation patterns excluded women from the activities that led to political leadership. During the twentieth century the ancient mode declined and women entered the labor market en masse. Joan Huber challenges feminists toward a richer understanding of biological origins of inequality-knowledge that can help women achieve greater equality today.

Interpreting The Origins Of Gender Inequality

Author: Eleanor Burke Leacock
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 11,89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 953
Download

Explores a Marxist theory of the development of inequality; includes comments on male dominance and inequality in Aboriginal society since colonisation.

Gender Inequality

Author: Judith Lorber
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199859085
Size: 11,20 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 248
Download

In Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics, Fifth Edition, internationally renowned feminist Judith Lorber examines various evolving theories of gender inequality. Tightly structured around Lorber's own paradigm of "reform, resistance, rebellion," this combination text/reader acknowledges feminism's significant contributions to redressing gender inequality and celebrates its enormous accomplishments over the last forty years. It also documents feminism's ongoing political activism, and, with an awareness of postmodern and third-wave trends, points toward its future. The fifth edition features eight new readings and five significantly rewritten, reorganized, and updated chapters, including one on transnational feminism, which encompasses Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Other rewritten chapters are Psychoanalytic and Cultural Feminism, Social Construction Feminism, Postmodern Feminism and Queer Theory, and Third Wave Feminism. As before, the bulleted lists introducing each type of feminism include the feminism's theories of the sources of gender inequality, its politics, its contributions, and a critique. An accessible, engaging classic written by one of sociology's first feminists, Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics, Fifth Edition, is an ideal undergraduate and graduate text for courses in introductory feminism, feminist theory, and women's studies.

Understanding The Gender Gap

Author: Claudia Dale Goldin
Editor: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195072709
Size: 19,26 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Read: 709
Download

Employing innovative quantitative history methods and new data series, this study traces the evolution of the female labor force in America and gender distinctions in the workplace.

Female Power And Male Dominance

Author: Peggy Reeves Sanday
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521280754
Size: 11,67 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Read: 919
Download

In this book, Professor Peggy Sanday provides a ground-breaking examination of power and dominance in male-female relationships. How does the culturally approved interaction between the sexes originate? Why are women viewed as a necessary part of political, economic, and religious affairs in some societies but not in others? Why do some societies clothe sacred symbols of creative power in the guise of one sex and not of the other? Professor Sanday offers solutions to these cultural puzzles by using cross-cultural research on over 150 tribal societies. She systematically establishes the full range of variation in male and female power roles and then suggests a theoretical framework for explaining this variation. Rejecting the argument of universal female subordination, Professor Sanday argues that male dominance is not inherent in human relations but is a solution to various kinds of cultural strain. Those who are thought to embody, be in touch with, or control the creative forces of nature are perceived as powerful. In isolating the behavioural and symbolic mechanisms which institute male dominance, professor Sanday shows that a people's secular power roles are partly derived from ancient concepts of power, as exemplified by their origin myths. Power and dominance are further determined by a people's adaptation to their environment, social conflict, and emotional stress. This is illustrated through case studies of the effects of European colonialism, migration, and food stress, and supported by numerous statistical associations between sexual inequity and various cultural stresses.

Sex And Secularism

Author: Joan Wallach Scott
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400888581
Size: 19,50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 993
Download

How secularism has been used to justify the subordination of women Joan Wallach Scott’s acclaimed and controversial writings have been foundational for the field of gender history. With Sex and Secularism, Scott challenges one of the central claims of the “clash of civilizations” polemic—the false notion that secularism is a guarantee of gender equality. Drawing on a wealth of scholarship by second-wave feminists and historians of religion, race, and colonialism, Scott shows that the gender equality invoked today as a fundamental and enduring principle was not originally associated with the term “secularism” when it first entered the lexicon in the nineteenth century. In fact, the inequality of the sexes was fundamental to the articulation of the separation of church and state that inaugurated Western modernity. Scott points out that Western nation-states imposed a new order of women’s subordination, assigning them to a feminized familial sphere meant to complement the rational masculine realms of politics and economics. It was not until the question of Islam arose in the late twentieth century that gender equality became a primary feature of the discourse of secularism. Challenging the assertion that secularism has always been synonymous with equality between the sexes, Sex and Secularism reveals how this idea has been used to justify claims of white, Western, and Christian racial and religious superiority and has served to distract our attention from a persistent set of difficulties related to gender difference—ones shared by Western and non-Western cultures alike.

The Cost Of Being A Girl

Author: Yasemin Besen-Cassino
Editor: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1439913498
Size: 13,20 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Read: 870
Download

The gender wage gap is one of the most persistent problems of labor markets and women’s lives. Most approaches to explaining the gap focus on adult employment despite the fact that many Americans begin working well before their education is completed. In her critical and compelling new book, The Cost of Being a Girl, Yasemin Besen-Cassino examines the origins of the gender wage gap by looking at the teenage labor force, where comparisons between boys and girls ought to show no difference, but do. Besen-Cassino’s findings are disturbing. Because of discrimination in the market, most teenage girls who start part-time work as babysitters and in other freelance jobs fail to make the same wages as teenage boys who move into employee-type jobs. The “cost” of being a girl is also psychological; when teenage girls work retail jobs in the apparel industry, they have lower wages and body image issues in the long run. Through in-depth interviews and surveys with workers and employees, The Cost of Being a Girl puts this alarming social problem—which extends to race and class inequality—in to bold relief. Besen-Cassino emphasizes that early inequalities in the workplace ultimately translate into greater inequalities in the overall labor force.

Women S Work Men S Property

Author: Stephanie Coontz
Editor: Verso Books
ISBN: 178478799X
Size: 13,92 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 496
Download

“To some a book on the origins of sexual inequality is absurd. Male dominance seems to them a universal, if not inevitable, phenomenon that has been with us since the dawn of our species. The essays in this volume offer differing perspectives on the development of sex-role differentiation and sexual inequality, but share a belief that these phenomena did have social origins, origins that must be sought in sociohistorical events and processes.” In this way Stephanie Coontz and Peta Henderson introduce a book which fills a yawning gap in Marxist and feminist theory of recent years. Women’s Work, Men’s Property brings together specialist historical and anthropological skills of a group of American and French feminists to examine the origins of the sexual division of labor, the nature of pre-state kinship societies, the position of women in slave-based societies, and the specific forms taken by the oppression of women in archaic Greece. Men’s Work, Women’s Property will be welcomed by teachers and students of women’s studies and anyone with an interest in the biological, psychological and historical roots of sexual inequality.

Gender Equality In A Global Perspective

Author: Anders Ortenblad
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317274229
Size: 10,32 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 336
Download

Gender Equality in a Global Perspective looks to discuss whether Gender Equality can be adopted as it has been defined in international documents anywhere, or whether it needs to be adapted in a more local context; discuss which factors and perspectives need to be taken into account when adapting Gender Equality to specific contexts; suggest research approaches for studies on whether a universal (Western) concept of Gender Equality fits in certain specific contexts; and finally suggests challenges to the existing interpretation of Gender Equality (e.g., theory of intersectionality); and the development of legal and policy framework. This book is situated within the tradition of comparative gender studies. While most other such books take up and compare various ways of implementing (or not implementing) gender equality, this book studies and compares whether or not (and to what extent) a specific definition of Gender Equality (GE) could be adopted by various nations. Thus, all chapter contributors will engage with the same definition of GE, which will be presented within the book, and discuss the possibilities and constrains related to applying such a definition in their particular national context. The readers will learn about the problems of applying a universal concept of Gender Equality and the possible reasons for and modes of adapting Gender Equality to different contexts. Gender Equality in a Global Perspective looks to maintain a critical and reflexive stance towards the issues raised and will seek to present multiple perspectives and open-ended answers. As such it hopes to contribute to the international discussion of human rights more broadly and Gender Equality specifically. The intended audience is not limited only to but will include policy makers, scholars and students with an interest in Gender issues, Organizational Theory, Political Science, Human Development, Policy Analysis, Globalization and other management sub-disciplines.