Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics 2012

Author: Ulrich Weidmann
Editor: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3319024477
Size: 12,44 MB
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The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynote talks as well as 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innovative new research, building a strong foundation for the next conference and for future research.

Pedestrian And Evacuation Dynamics

Author: Richard D. Peacock
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441997258
Size: 17,29 MB
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An aging population, increasing obesity and more people with mobility impairments are bringing new challenges to the management of routine and emergency people movement in many countries. These population challenges, coupled with the innovative designs being suggested for both the built environment and other commonly used structures (e.g., transportation systems) and the increasingly complex incident scenarios of fire, terrorism, and large-scale community disasters, provide even greater challenges to population management and safety. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics, an edited volume, is based on the Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics (PED) 5th International 2010 conference, March 8th-10th 2010, located at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. This volume addresses both pedestrian and evacuation dynamics and associated human behavior to provide answers for policy makers, designers, and emergency management to help solve real world problems in this rapidly developing field. Data collection, analysis, and model development of people movement and behavior during nonemergency and emergency situations will be covered as well.

Einf Hrung In Die Geometrie Und Topologie

Author: Werner Ballmann
Editor: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3034809018
Size: 20,13 MB
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Das Buch bietet eine Einführung in die Topologie, Differentialtopologie und Differentialgeometrie. Es basiert auf Manuskripten, die in verschiedenen Vorlesungszyklen erprobt wurden. Im ersten Kapitel werden grundlegende Begriffe und Resultate aus der mengentheoretischen Topologie bereitgestellt. Eine Ausnahme hiervon bildet der Jordansche Kurvensatz, der für Polygonzüge bewiesen wird und eine erste Idee davon vermitteln soll, welcher Art tiefere topologische Probleme sind. Im zweiten Kapitel werden Mannigfaltigkeiten und Liesche Gruppen eingeführt und an einer Reihe von Beispielen veranschaulicht. Diskutiert werden auch Tangential- und Vektorraumbündel, Differentiale, Vektorfelder und Liesche Klammern von Vektorfeldern. Weiter vertieft wird diese Diskussion im dritten Kapitel, in dem die de Rhamsche Kohomologie und das orientierte Integral eingeführt und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz, der Jordan-Brouwersche Zerlegungssatz und die Integralformel von Stokes bewiesen werden. Das abschließende vierte Kapitel ist den Grundlagen der Differentialgeometrie gewidmet. Entlang der Entwicklungslinien, die die Geometrie der Kurven und Untermannigfaltigkeiten in Euklidischen Räumen durchlaufen hat, werden Zusammenhänge und Krümmung, die zentralen Konzepte der Differentialgeometrie, diskutiert. Den Höhepunkt bilden die Gaussgleichungen, die Version des theorema egregium von Gauss für Untermannigfaltigkeiten beliebiger Dimension und Kodimension. Das Buch richtet sich in erster Linie an Mathematik- und Physikstudenten im zweiten und dritten Studienjahr und ist als Vorlage für ein- oder zweisemestrige Vorlesungen geeignet.

Cellular Automata

Author: Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3642333508
Size: 18,64 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, ACRI 2012, held in Santorini Island, Greece, in September 2012. The 88 revised papers were carefully selected from numerous submissions. In order to give a perspective in which both theoretical and applicational aspects of cellular automata contribute to the growth of the area, this book mirrors the structure of the conference, grouping the 88 papers into two main parts. The first part collects papers presented as part of the main conference and organized according to six main topics: theoretical results on cellular automata; cellular automata dynamics, control and synchronization; cellular automata and networks; modeling and simulation with cellular automata; cellular automata-based hardware and architectures; codes, pseudorandom number generators and cryptography with cellular automata. The second part of the volume is dedicated to contributions presented during the ACRI 2012 workshops on theoretical advances, specifically asynchronous cellular automata, and challenging application contexts for cellular automata: crowds and CA, traffic and CA, and the satellite Workshop on cellular automata of cancer growth and invasion.

Contemporary Ergonomics 2008

Author: Philip D. Bust
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203883259
Size: 19,97 MB
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Presenting the Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's annual conference, the series embraces the wide range of topics covered by ergonomics. Individual papers provide insight into current practice, present new research findings and form an invaluable reference source. A wide range of topics are covered in these proceedings, including Ergonomics, Human Factors and User-Centred Design. It also features related disciplines such as Psychology, Engineering and Physiology. Particular emphasis is given to the utility of these disciplines in improving health, safety, efficiency and productivity. The 2008 Annual Conference features the following themes: "Human Reliability" "Disaster Management" "Slips, Trips and Falls" from research to practice "Health and Well Being of Construction Workers" "Inclusive Design" "Rail Human Factors" "Nuclear Human Factors" Contemporary Ergonomics will appeal to all those who are concerned with the interaction of people with their working and leisure environment — including designers, manufacturing and production engineers, health and safety specialists, occupational, applied and industrial psychologists and applied physiologists.

This Is Improbable Too

Author: Marc Abrahams
Editor: Oneworld Publications
ISBN: 1780743629
Size: 13,78 MB
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Marc Abrahams collects the odd, the imaginative, and the brilliantly improbable from around the world. Here he investigates research on the ins and outs of the very improbable evolutionary innovation that is the human body (brain included). This Is Improbable Too explores the odd questions that researchers are asking, such as: What's the best way to get a monkey to floss regularly? How much dandruff do soldiers in Pakistan's army have? If you add an extra henchman to your bank-robbing gang, how much more money will you earn? Why is it so impossible to estimate the number of stupid people in circulation? How many dimples will be found on the cheeks of 28,282 Greek children? Who is the Einstein of pork carcasses? This Is Improbable Too also investigates unlikely medical cases, including a boy with an "Eiffel head injury" (involving a toy tower), and even more unlikely inventions, such as a patented system for attacking your enemy with a bio-waste bomb.

Ich Denke Also Irre Ich

Author: David McRaney
Editor: MVG Verlag
ISBN: 3864153336
Size: 10,24 MB
Format: PDF
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DER IRRGLAUBE: Sie sind ein rationales, logisch denkendes Wesen, das die Welt so sieht, wie sie wirklich ist. DIE WAHRHEIT: Sie sind wie alle anderen Menschen in Selbsttäuschungen gefangen. Tagtäglich führt uns unser Gehirn in die Irre, ohne dass wir es merken. David McRaney entführt uns in die faszinierende Welt der Psychologie und erklärt verständlich die interessantesten Trugschlüsse, denen wir immer wieder erliegen, wie: -Rückschaufehler: Wenn wir etwas Neues lernen, versichern wir uns, dass wir es ohnehin längst wussten. -Markentreue: Wir kaufen immer wieder dieselbe Marke – nicht, weil wir von deren Qualität überzeugt sind, sondern weil wir uns selbst beteuern wollen, dass wir beim letzten Kauf eine clevere Wahl getroffen haben. -Strohmann-Argument: Wir glauben, dass wir bei einem Streit die Fakten objektiv beurteilen. Doch jedes Mal verleitet uns der Zorn dazu, den Standpunkt unseres Gegners verzerrt darzustellen. In spannenden Anekdoten erläutert David McRaney fesselnde Forschungsergebnisse aus der Psychologie und demonstriert, wie unser Gehirn wirklich funktioniert und wie wir uns von Denkfehlern befreien.

Pedestrian Dynamics

Author: Pushkin Kachroo
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540755616
Size: 20,70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Effective evacuations can save lives. This book provides mathematical models of pedestrian movements that can be used specifically for designing feedback control laws for effective evacuation. The book also provides various feedback control laws to accomplish the effective evacuation. It book uses the hydrodynamic hyperbolic PDE macroscopic pedestrian models since they are amenable to feedback control design. The control designs are obtained through different nonlinear techniques.

Automata 2008

Author: Andrew Adamatzky
Editor: Luniver Press
ISBN: 1905986165
Size: 10,68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Cellular automata are regular uniform networks of locally-connected finite-state machines. They are discrete systems with non-trivial behaviour. Cellular automata are ubiquitous: they are mathematical models of computation and computer models of natural systems. The book presents results of cutting edge research in cellular-automata framework of digital physics and modelling of spatially extended non-linear systems; massive-parallel computing, language acceptance, and computability; reversibility of computation, graph-theoretic analysis and logic; chaos and undecidability; evolution, learning and cryptography. The book is unique because it brings together unequalled expertise of inter-disciplinary studies at the edge of mathematics, computer science, engineering, physics and biology.

A Cellular Automaton Model For Crowd Movement And Egress Simulation

Author: Hubert Klüpfel
Editor: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3656272247
Size: 18,21 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Doktorarbeit / Dissertation aus dem Jahr 2003 im Fachbereich Verkehrswissenschaft, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: The movement of crowds is a field of research that attracts increasing interest. This is due to three major reasons: pattern formation and selforganization processes that occur in crowd dynamics, the advancement of simulation techniques and hardware that enable fast and realistic simulations, and finally the growing area of potential applications (planning of pedestrian facilities, crowd management, or evacuation analysis). The field is spanning the borders of various disciplines: physiology, psychology, sociology, civil engineering, mathematics, physics, etc. It depends on the point of view which aspects are given the main focus. One approach is to reduce complexity to fundamental principles that make a mathematical (quantitative) formulation possible and at the same time are sufficiently complex to reproduce the major phenomena that can be observed in reality. The major aim of this dissertation is to define and validate a model for the simulation of evacuation processes and their analysis. To this end the analogy between non-equilibrium many particle systems and crowds is used. However, it will also become clear that this analogy is not sufficient for complex scenarios and realistic egress simulations and additional, ‘non-physical’, parameters and principles must be introduced. Even though the investigation is motivated by the applications, the dynamics of crowd movement and model properties are scrutinized. This also includes a thorough review of the data available in the literature, the calibration of the model parameters and the comparison of simulated and empirical flow-density relations. The core of any evacuation simulation is a set of rules or equations for the movement of people. This is connected to the representation of space, population, and behavior. These topics will be investigated generally (micro- vs. macroscopic, discrete vs. continuous) and especially with regard to a specific two-dimensional cellular automaton model, where the movement dynamics is based on discrete space and time. This allows an efficient implementation and therefore large scale simulations. The route-choice is done via the orientation along a discrete vector field which can in principal be derived from a discrete potential. It is therefore not explicitly simulated but taken into account in a pre-determined way, i.e., the coupling to the vector field is static (constant coupling parameter).