Proceedings Of The 9th International Congress On Deterioration And Conservation Of Stone

Author: V. Fassina
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080530338
Size: 18,16 MB
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The conservation of historic monuments, sites and structures constitutes an inter-professional discipline co-ordinating a range of aesthetic historic, scientific and technical methods. Conservation is a rapidly developing field, which, by its true nature, is a multidisciplinary activity with experts respecting one another's contributions and combining to form an effective team. Conservation is an artistic activity aided by scientific and historical knowledge. Main topics at this Congress included: - the most appropriate methodology for the assessment of the degree of weathering of stone - development of new methods and instruments for the diagnosis of the state of conservation, for the study of alteration mechanisms and for conservation treatments. - the definition of Technical European Standard Methods for the evaluation of conservation treatments of artistic and historic stone objects and monuments.

Proceedings Of The 9th International Congress On Deterioration And Conservation Of Stone Venice June 19 24 2000

Author: Vasco Fassina
Editor:
ISBN: 9780444505170
Size: 15,64 MB
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Stone Conservation

Author: Clifford A. Price
Editor: Getty Publications
ISBN: 1606060465
Size: 20,22 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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First published in 1996, this volume has been substantially updated to reflect new research in the conservation of stone monuments, sculpture, and archaeological sites.

Building Stone Decay

Author: Richard Přikryl
Editor: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862392182
Size: 13,69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Stone In Architecture

Author: Siegfried Siegesmund
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3642451551
Size: 15,31 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The weathering of historical buildings and, indeed, of monuments and sculptures of natural stone is a problem that has been encountered for hundreds of years. However a dramatic increase in deterioration in the structure of our built heritage has been observed during the past century. To understand the complex interaction that the stone in a building suffers with its near environment (the building) and the macro environment (the local climate and atmospheric conditions) requires an interdisciplinary approach and the application of many disciplines. Climate change over the next 100 years is likely to have a range of direct and indirect impacts on many natural and physical environments, including the built environment. The protection of our architectural heritage has both cultural and historical importance, as well as substantial economic and ecological value. Large sums of money are being spent world-wide on measures for the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. The past few decades has seen an unprecedented level of research activity in this area, the result of which is often difficult to access and are summarized in the new edition of STONE IN ARCHITECTURE. The 4th edition of Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability, is a sophisticated and thorough exploration of stone – its properties, performance and conservation – in monumental contexts. The current editors, Siegfried Siegesmund and Rolf Snethlage, note the pioneering work of Erhard Winkler who wrote the first edition in 1973 when so little information could be found in the literature on the subject. This new edition, also published by Springer, nearly doubles the size of Winkler’s 1994 effort. If you are familiar with the field and need to know little more than this statement, you can put aside this review and go buy the book. George Wheeler, Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Handbook Of Sol Gel Science And Technology 3 Applications Of Sol Gel Technology

Author: Sumio Sakka
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402079689
Size: 13,67 MB
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:

Biodeterioration Of Stone Surfaces

Author: Larry St.Clair
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402028038
Size: 20,64 MB
Format: PDF
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This is a timely volume in view of the considerable interest currently shown in the preservation of our cultural heritage and the extensive and growing literature on the subject. Unfortunately, the latter is to be found in a wide variety of published sources, some aimed at a very specific readership. The present volume draws together a spectrum of biodeterioration work from across the world to provide an overview of the materials examined and the methodologies employed to elucidate the nature of the problems, as well as an extensive and current bibliographical resource on lichen biodeterioration. Generally, we do not think of rock surfaces as particularly conducive to the growth and development of living things. Occasionally, we may encounter grasses or forbs or even more rarely a small shrub or stunted tree growing from a crack in a large boulder or rock wall; but for most people, rock is perceived as dry, sterile, impenetrable, and generally uninviting. However, to the experienced eye rock surfaces are often teeming with life – lichens, bryophytes, a host of small invertebrate animals, as well as a vast array of microscopic organisms including bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and non-lichenized fungi. The longevity and structural stability of most rocks superficially suggest that rock surface inhabitants are benign; however, slowly and steadily all rock dwelling organisms contribute to the relentless decomposition of rock surfaces – augmented by the natural physical forces associated with changing seasons, weather patterns, and in some localized settings the caustic effects of air pollution. Rock dwelling communities vary in complexity and composition depending on the specific structural and chemical features of the rock. Even human manipulated or manufactured stone supports to some degree a living community – and herein are found the real issues and concerns related to biodeterioration of rock substrata. In a natural setting biodecomposition of rock is accepted as normal and even desirable – integral to the process of soil development; however, in the human environment biodeterioration of monuments, buildings, artwork, statues and gravestones is counted as a serious problem. Even in natural settings, culturally significant prehistoric and historic rock art is subject to the same processes of biodeterioration. In this volume the editors have compiled current papers from leading experts dealing with various issues related to biodeterioration of rock substrata. Topics range from biodeterioration effects on prehistoric rock art as well as culturally significant, historic rock structures. This is the first treatment of the subject of biodeterioration that includes a careful consideration of the role of related disciplines including geology, archaeology, crystallography, cultural conservation and resource management. This combination of disciplines makes this book valuable not only as a solid scientific treatise but equally important as a serious resource for evaluating both impact processes and preservation options related to biodeterioration of culturally significant rock substrata.

Cultural Heritage And Aerobiology

Author: Paolo Mandrioli
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401701857
Size: 10,69 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Aerobiology is the science that studies the biological component of the atmosphere and its effects on living systems and on the environment. This term was used for the first time in 1935, but the attention of scientists to the biological component of the atmosphere goes back to 1769, when the Italian biologist Spallanzani carried out a series of experiments that disproved the concept of spontaneous generation of life and proved the presence of viable microorganisms in the air. Aerobiology has marked characteristics of interdisciplinarity: its application fields range from respiratory diseases to the airborne outbreak of animal and vegetal diseases and to the biodegradation of substances and materials. The latter is the subject of this book. The purpose of aerobiological research applied to the conservation of cultural heritage is to evaluate the risk of alteration by airborne microorganisms of materials forming artefacts of historical, artistic and archaeological interest. Airborne spores and vegetative structures may develop on different substrates and may be a cause of degradation, in relation to the types of materials, the microclimatic situation and the pollution of the conservation environments. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the biological component of air, performed by means of targeted analysis campaigns, and of the characteristics of materials and environments, supplies indispensable information for the evaluation of the actual risk and the planning of interventions. This book is divided into four main parts.