The Biogeochemical Cycle Of Silicon In The Ocean

Author: Bernard Quéguiner
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 184821815X
Size: 10,16 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the biogeochemical dynamics of marine ecosystems, silicon is a major element whose role has, for a long time, been underestimated. It is however indispensable to the activity of several biomineralizing marine organisms, some of which play an essential role in the biological pump of oceanic carbon. This book presents notions indispensable to the knowledge on the silicon biogeochemical cycle in ocean systems, first of all describing the main quantitative analysis techniques and examination of the major organisms involved in the cycle. The author then moves on to study the most up-to-date processes to control the use of silicon and its regeneration in natural conditions, before mentioning the central role played by this original element in the control of all the biogeochemical cycles in the global ocean. The available information finally enables the global biogeochemical budget of silicon in the marine environment to be quantified.

Nitrogen In The Marine Environment

Author: Edward J. Carpenter
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483288293
Size: 12,40 MB
Format: PDF
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Nitrogen in the Marine Environment provides information pertinent to the many aspects of the nitrogen cycle. This book presents the advances in ocean productivity research, with emphasis on the role of microbes in nitrogen transformations with excursions to higher trophic levels. Organized into 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the abundance and distribution of the various forms of nitrogen in a number of estuaries. This text then provides a comparison of the nitrogen cycling of various ecosystems within the marine environment. Other chapters consider chemical distributions and methodology as an aid to those entering the field. This book discusses as well the enzymology of the initial steps of inorganic nitrogen assimilation. The final chapter deals with the philosophy and application of modeling as an investigative method in basic research on nitrogen dynamics in coastal and open-ocean marine environments. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, microbiologists, aquatic ecologists, and bacteriologists.

Ecological Systems

Author: Rik Leemans
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461457556
Size: 18,21 MB
Format: PDF
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Earth is home to an estimated 8 million animal species, 600,000 fungi, 300,000 plants, and an undetermined number of microbial species. Of these animal, fungal, and plant species, an estimated 75% have yet to be identified. Moreover, the interactions between these species and their physical environment are known to an even lesser degree. At the same time, the earth’s biota faces the prospect of climate change, which may manifest slowly or extremely rapidly, as well as a human population set to grow by two billion by 2045 from the current seven billion. Given these major ecological changes, we cannot wait for a complete biota data set before assessing, planning, and acting to preserve the ecological balance of the earth. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the scientific and engineering basis of the systems ecology of the earth in 15 detailed, peer-reviewed entries written for a broad audience of undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing professionals in government, academia, and industry. The methodology presented aims at identifying key interactions and environmental effects, and enabling a systems-level understanding even with our present state of factual knowledge.

Encyclopedia Of Environmental Change

Author: John A Matthews
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 1473928192
Size: 12,15 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field. The encyclopedia includes all of the following aspects of environmental change: Diverse evidence of environmental change, including climate change and changes on land and in the oceans Underlying natural and anthropogenic causes and mechanisms Wide-ranging local, regional and global impacts from the polar regions to the tropics Responses of geo-ecosystems and human-environmental systems in the face of past, present and future environmental change Approaches, methodologies and techniques used for reconstructing, dating, monitoring, modelling, projecting and predicting change Social, economic and political dimensions of environmental issues, environmental conservation and management and environmental policy Over 4,000 entries explore the following key themes and more: Conservation Demographic change Environmental management Environmental policy Environmental security Food security Glaciation Green Revolution Human impact on environment Industrialization Landuse change Military impacts on environment Mining and mining impacts Nuclear energy Pollution Renewable resources Solar energy Sustainability Tourism Trade Water resources Water security Wildlife conservation The comprehensive coverage of terminology includes layers of entries ranging from one-line definitions to short essays, making this an invaluable companion for any student of physical geography, environmental geography or environmental sciences.

The Silicon Cycle

Author: Venugopalan Ittekkot
Editor: Island Press
ISBN: 9781597267823
Size: 18,92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Silicon is among the most abundant elements on earth. It plays a key but largely unappreciated role in many biogeochemical processes, including those that regulate climate and undergird marine food webs. The Silicon Cycle is the first book in more than 20 years to present a comprehensive overview of the silicon cycle and issues associated with it. The book summarizes the major outcomes of the project Land-Ocean Interactions: Silica Cycle, initiated by the Scientific Community on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). It tracks the pathway of silicon from land to sea and discusses its biotic and abiotic modifications in transit as well as its cycling in the coastal seas. Natural geological processes in combination with atmospheric and hydrological processes are discussed, as well as human perturbations of the natural controls of the silicon cycle.

Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics

Author: Jorge L. Sarmiento
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849071
Size: 17,22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Ocean Biogeochemical Dynamics provides a broad theoretical framework upon which graduate students and upper-level undergraduates can formulate an understanding of the processes that control the mean concentration and distribution of biologically utilized elements and compounds in the ocean. Though it is written as a textbook, it will also be of interest to more advanced scientists as a wide-ranging synthesis of our present understanding of ocean biogeochemical processes. The first two chapters of the book provide an introductory overview of biogeochemical and physical oceanography. The next four chapters concentrate on processes at the air-sea interface, the production of organic matter in the upper ocean, the remineralization of organic matter in the water column, and the processing of organic matter in the sediments. The focus of these chapters is on analyzing the cycles of organic carbon, oxygen, and nutrients. The next three chapters round out the authors' coverage of ocean biogeochemical cycles with discussions of silica, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity, and CaCO3. The final chapter discusses applications of ocean biogeochemistry to our understanding of the role of the ocean carbon cycle in interannual to decadal variability, paleoclimatology, and the anthropogenic carbon budget. The problem sets included at the end of each chapter encourage students to ask critical questions in this exciting new field. While much of the approach is mathematical, the math is at a level that should be accessible to students with a year or two of college level mathematics and/or physics.

An Introduction To Marine Biogeochemistry

Author: Susan M. Libes
Editor: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
ISBN:
Size: 11,89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Focuses on the ocean's role in the global biogeochemical cycling of selected elements and the impact of humans on the transport of these elements. Among the topics covered are the chemical composition of seawater from the perspectives of elemental speciation and the impact of solutes on water's physical behavior; biogeochemical phenomena which control accumulation and preservation of marine sediments; marine chemistry of radioactive and stable isotopes; seawater pollution. Contains many examples as well as steady-state models to aid readers in understanding this relatively young, growing and complex science.

Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

Author: Rachael James
Editor: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0750667931
Size: 14,86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This Volume belongs to a series on Oceanography. It is designed so that it can be read on its own, or used as a supplement in oceanogrphy courses. After a brief introduction to sea-floor sediments, the book shows how the activities of marine organisms cycle nutrients and other dissolved constituents within the oceans, and influence the rates at which both solid and dissolved material is removed to sediments. It goes on to review the carbonate system and shows how sediments that come from continental areas may be transported to the deep sea, explores what sea-floor sediments have taught us about the history of the oceans, and describes the biological and chemical processes that continue long after sediments have been deposited on the deep sea-floor. * Covers the basics on the occurrence, distribution, and cycling of chemical elements in the ocean * Features full-color photographs and beautiful illustrations throughout * Reader-friendly layout, writing, and graphics * Pedagogy includes chapter summaries, chapter questions with answers and comments at the end of the book; highlighted key terms; and boxed topics and explanations * Can be used alone, as a supplement, or in combination with other Open University titles in oceanography

The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle

Author: Robert A. Berner
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195346657
Size: 18,26 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The term "carbon cycle" is normally thought to mean those processes that govern the present-day transfer of carbon between life, the atmosphere, and the oceans. This book describes another carbon cycle, one which operates over millions of years and involves the transfer of carbon between rocks and the combination of life, the atmosphere, and the oceans. The weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks and ancient sedimentary organic matter (including recent, large-scale human-induced burning of fossil fuels), the burial of organic matter and carbonate minerals in sediments, and volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide contribute to this cycle. In The Phanerozoic Carbon Cycle, Robert Berner shows how carbon cycle models can be used to calculate levels of atmospheric CO[2 and O[2 over Phanerozoic time, the past 550 million years, and how results compare with independent methods. His analysis has implications for such disparate subjects as the evolution of land plants, the presence of giant ancient insects, the role of tectonics in paleoclimate, and the current debate over global warming and greenhouse gases