The Cayo Santiago Macaques

Autore: Richard G. Rawlins
Editore: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780887061356
Grandezza: 43,76 MB
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This volume presents a broad spectrum of research on the Cayo Santiago macaques, a unique free-ranging colony of rhesus macaques in Puerto Rico. It includes thirteen scientific studies on the behavior and biology of the Cayo Santiago macaques, as well as a detailed history of the colony and a complete bibliography of over 260 scientific publications based on work at Cayo Santiago from 1938 through 1984. The chapters represent examples of both short- and long-term research conducted on the island over the past several years. Some are reviews, providing a synopsis of complex longitudinal studies of behavior, vocal communication, functional morphology, genetics, and population dynamics. Others document the results of opportunistic studies of behavior or biological surveys. The chapters cover a broad range of topics, but all share a common dependence on the detailed life history and genealogical data which make the Cayo Santiago macaque colony an important international research resource.

Locomotor Ontogeny Of The Cayo Santiago Macaques

Autore: Richard G. Rawlins
Editore: Richard Rawlins, Ph.D HCLD
ISBN:
Grandezza: 22,47 MB
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This is a study of the functional morphology and behavioral dynamics underlying locomotor ontogeny in a free-ranging group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. It tests the hypothesis that developmental modifications of morphology in the shoulder gird le and forelimb of Macaca mulatta are associated with changes in the frequencies of locomotor and postural behavior, and it demonstrates systematic study of the morphological and behavioral development of primates can be used to assess the validity of predicting habitual locomotor pat terns from anatomical evidence.Eight osteometric features of the scapula, clavicle and humerus, which reflect myological ada ptations to locomotor function, are statistically combined through discriminant function analysis and indicate differential modification of shoulder gird le locomotor morphology occurs in the Cayo Santiago population with age and by sex. Hypothetical shifts in positional behavior, derived from analysis of the skeletal data, are checked against actual behavioral frequencies observed in a free-ranging troop of macaques over a period of 13 months. The effects of seasonal changes in rainfall and flora, the annual reproductive cycle and an animal's sex, dominance rank, and genealogical affiliation are also considered as additional factors that can pattern frequencies of positional behavior.

Bones Genetics And Behavior Of Rhesus Macaques

Autore: Qian Wang
Editore: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461410461
Grandezza: 44,61 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 4176
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Foreword by Phillip V. Tobias The introduction of rhesus macaques to Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico in 1938, and the subsequent development of the CPRC for biomedical research, continues its long history of stimulating studies in physical anthropology. The CPRC monkey colonies, and the precise demographic data on the derived skeletal collection in the Center’s Laboratory of Primate Morphology and Genetics (LPMG), provide rare opportunities for morphological, developmental, functional, genetic, and behavioral studies across the life span of rhesus macaques as a species, and as a primate model for humans. The book grows out of a symposium Wang is organizing for the 78th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists to be held in April 2009. This symposium will highlight recent and ongoing research in, or related to, physical anthropology, and reveal the numerous research opportunities that still exist at this unusual rhesus facility. Following an initial historical review of CPRC and its research activities, this book will emphasize recent and current researches on growth, function, genetics, pathology, aging, and behavior, and the impact of these researches on our understanding of rhesus and human morphology, development, genetics, and behavior. Fourteen researchers will present recent and current studies on morphology, genetics, and behavior, with relevance to primate and human growth, health, and evolution. The book will include not only papers presented in the symposium, but also papers from individuals who could not present their work at the meeting due to limitations in the maximum number (14) of permitted speakers.

Population History At The Microscale

Autore: Darice Westphal
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 54,94 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 4488
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Being able to understand the effects of relatedness on adult cranial morphology has implications for inferring population histories, and for informing us about the influence of social behaviors on these patterns of population relatedness. Several methods have been developed to infer relatedness among human or other primate populations using metric data. This thesis uses detailed genealogical and demographic information for free-ranging rhesus macaques born over four decades on Cayo Santiago along with individually matched cranial measurements and interprets the resulting patterns in a socioecological framework. I used R-matrix methods to examine cranial shape variation among social lineages on Cayo Santiago and changes over time. Results from the lineage analysis support the male migration effect of fission and the lineal effect of fission, which increased the genetic variation between two lineages. Lineage-specific mating and random male gene flow both decreased the genetic variation among the lineages. When the lineages were combined and divided into four time periods, a strong temporal trend was observed. This temporal trend is most likely due to environmental differentiation over time and some degree of genetic drift. This thesis demonstrates how behavioral mechanisms affect genetic relationships among populations and that linear distances derived from cranial measurements can provide information about population structure and population history even at this small spatial and temporal scale.

Life History Patterns Of Male Rhesus Macaques On Cayo Santiago

Autore: John David Berard
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 41,28 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 3199
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Behavior And Socioendocrinology Of Adult Male Rhesus Macaques Of Cayo Santiago

Autore: Mariya Rakhovskaya
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 46,49 MB
Formato: PDF, Docs
Vista: 3255
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Costs Of Reproduction Among Rhesus Macaque Females On Cayo Santiago

Autore: Christy L. Hoffman
Editore:
ISBN: 9781124197562
Grandezza: 23,93 MB
Formato: PDF
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High allostatic load, characterized by hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, can make adult mammalian females more susceptible to disease and mortality, particularly during periods of gestation and lactation. Additionally, poor maternal condition or increased maternal investment may affect allostatic load. Long-term demographic records and short-term records on health and behavior were analyzed to examine allostatic load and the costs of reproduction in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Chapter 2 demonstrates that breeding is seasonal and may be affected by climatic factors and examines how female and male mortality rates in this population are affected by time of year. In Chapter 3, the impacts of female age, reproductive state, social rank and body composition on plasma cortisol levels are explored. In Chapter 4, short-term and long-term records collected on the Cayo Santiago population are used to characterize female senescence in this population and to test whether female age affects intensity of investment in infants and offspring fitness and survival. Chapter 5 explores whether HPA axis activity and immune function are affected by female age, reproductive state, social rank and body condition, whether inter-individual differences in glucocorticoid and cytokine levels are stable over time, and whether there are relationships between glucocorticoid and cytokine levels. Reproductive state and social rank are found to influence cortisol levels in response to stress, and for females there are significant mortality costs associated with the birth season. The data also reflect that females are not all equally equipped to handle the demands of frequent reproduction since allostatic load is chronically elevated for some individuals, as indicated by levels of glucocorticoids or cytokines that remain high from year to year and across pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the data support the senescence and terminal investment hypotheses, but though age-associated increases in maternal investment were observed, increased maternal investment did not improve infant survival for mothers in their late teens and early twenties. Although wild rhesus macaques tend to have shorter lifespans than those observed on Cayo Santiago, it is likely that the costs associated with reproduction that have been detected in the Cayo Santiago population would also be observed, perhaps to an even greater extent, in wild primate populations. Disease as well as psychosocial stressors associated with fear of predation and limited resources are likely to increase allostatic load regardless of reproductive state, but are expected to be particularly burdensome among reproductively active females.

Hands Of Primates

Autore: Holger Preuschoft
Editore: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709169143
Grandezza: 76,31 MB
Formato: PDF
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The hand commonly is considered to have exerted great influence on the evolution of typically human characteristics, like upright posture, stereoscopic vision, «manipulative» handling of parts of the environment. The German term «Begreifen», which is commonly used for the understanding of complex relationships in a generalised, abstract sense, always implies the original meaning of seizing objects with the aid of the hands. The hands are also of greatest importance for the survival of the other, non-human primates. Hands are absolutely essential for locomotion in an arboreal habitat, and the intake of food is dependant on the use of the hands as well: primates very rarely take in food directly with their mouths, in the wast majority of cases they seize food items with their hands. Even drinking is often performed by dipping the hand into the water and licking the drops from hand and forearm. An organ of such importance will very probably be «adapted» to its «function». This statement is made so often, that any further considerations seem superfluous. Nobody doubts, that the hands of primates are highly adaptive organs, the general form and internal structure of which are closely related to the necessities of life. However, if one tries to go beyond this general statement, he finds himself confront ed with several problems: First of all, a point which W. GUTMANN has emphasized repeatedly: according to the results obtained by genetics, the first thing to appear is the mutated character.

Macachiavellian Intelligence

Autore: Dario Maestripieri
Editore: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226501213
Grandezza: 51,66 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 2125
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Judged by population size and distribution, homo sapiens are clearly the most successful primates. A close second, however, would be rhesus macaques, who have adapted to—and thrived in—such diverse environments as mountain forests, dry grasslands, and urban sprawl. Scientists have spent countless hours studying these opportunistic monkeys, but rhesus macaques have long been overshadowed in the public eye by the great apes, who, because of their greater intelligence, are naturally assumed to have more to teach us, both about other primates and about humans as well. Dario Maestripieri thinks it is high time we shelve that misperception, and with Macachiavellian Intelligence he gives rhesus macaques their rightful turn in the spotlight. The product of more than twenty years studying these fascinating creatures, Macachiavellian Intelligence caricatures a society that is as much human as monkey, with hierarchies and power struggles that would impress Machiavelli himself. High-status macaques, for instance, maintain their rank through deft uses of violence and manipulation, while altruism is almost unknown and relationships are perpetually subject to the cruel laws of the market. Throughout this eye-opening account, Maestripieri weds his thorough knowledge of macaque behavior to his abiding fascination with human society and motivations. The result is a book unlike any other, one that draws on economics as much as evolutionary biology, politics as much as primatology. Rife with unexpected connections and peppered with fascinating anecdotes, Macachiavellian Intelligence has as much to teach us about humans as it does about macaques, presenting a wry, rational, and wholly surprising view of our humanity as seen through the monkey in the mirror.