Transfer Of Polarized Light In Planetary Atmospheres

Author: J.W. Hovenier
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402028563
Size: 20,38 MB
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The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature are given at the end of the book. Appendices contain supplementary information such as a general exposition on properties of matrices transforming Stokes parameters of light beams. Each chapter concludes with a number of problems with answers or hints for solution. The readers should have some basic knowledge of physics and mathematics. The book is suitable as a textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It will also be of interest to science professionals in one of the many disciplines in which electromagnetic scattering plays an important role, like astrophysics, atmospheric optics, remote sensing, marine optics, biophysics and biomedicine.

Aerosol Optics

Author: Alexander Kokhanovsky
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540499091
Size: 11,76 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This new text offers experienced students a comprehensive review of available techniques for the remote sensing of aerosols. These small particles influence both atmospheric visibility and the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. They are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvests, human health problems and ecological disasters. Thus, this detailed study of aerosol properties on a global scale could not be more timely.

Polarisation Applications In Remote Sensing

Author: Shane Cloude
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199569738
Size: 19,37 MB
Format: PDF
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This is a monograph concerning the scattering of electromagnetic waves from surfaces to generate information for the purposes of remote sensing. It combines, for the first time, a treatment of two important new ideas, namely information from the orientation or polarisation of the wave and how it can be combined with interferometry.

Multiple Scattering Of Light By Particles

Author: Michael I. Mishchenko
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521834902
Size: 20,57 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Monograph on multiple scattering of light by small particles; resource for science professionals, engineers, and graduate students.

Polarimetry Of Stars And Planetary Systems

Author: Ludmilla Kolokolova
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316298949
Size: 10,57 MB
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Summarising the striking advances of the last two decades, this reliable introduction to modern astronomical polarimetry provides a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art techniques, models and research methods. Focusing on optical and near-infrared wavelengths, each detailed, up-to-date chapter addresses a different facet of recent innovations, including new instrumentation, techniques and theories; new methods based on laboratory studies, enabling the modelling of polarimetric characteristics for a wide variety of astronomical objects; emerging fields of polarimetric exploration, including proto-planetary and debris discs, icy satellites, transneptunian objects, exoplanets, and the search for extraterrestrial life; and unique results produced by space telescopes, and polarimeters aboard exploratory spacecraft. With contributions from an international team of accomplished researchers, this is an ideal resource for astronomers and researchers working in astrophysics, earth sciences, and remote sensing keen to learn more about this valuable diagnostic tool. The book is dedicated to the memory of renowned polarimetrist Tom Gehrels.

The Symbiotic Phenomenon

Author: Joanna Mikolajewska
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400929692
Size: 15,51 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Symbiotic stars were identified spectroscopically as M giants with a very strong He II 4686 emission line. After five decades of study by many astronomers, the first internatioinal meetings devoted to symbiotics were held at the University of Colorado (Boulder) and at the Haute Provence Observatory during the Summer of 1981. These conferences emphasized exciting new results obtained by modern satellite (EINSTEIN, IUE) and ground-based observatories. Although the vast majority of the participants were already fairly sure that symbiotics are almost certainly interacting binary systems, and not extremely peculiar single stars, it was not clear exactly which types of physical processes were needed to be invoked to explain their observed behaviour. Many were even worried that it might not be possible to clearly define a class of "symbiotic stars" , and thus establish a unique model applicable to any system. Since the publication of the Haute-Provence proceedings, our understanding of the physical processes occuring in symbiotic stars (and in related objects such as cataclysmic variables and compact planetary nebulae) has greatly improved. We now speak confidently of a "symbiotic phenomenon" , in which an evolved red giant and a hot companion object (usually thought to be an accreting main sequence star or a luminous white dwarf star) happily coexist.

The Fundamentals Of Modern Astrophysics

Author: Mikhail Ya Marov
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1461487307
Size: 20,94 MB
Format: PDF
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The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics provides an overview of the modern science of astrophysics. It covers the Sun, Solar System bodies, exoplanets, stars, and star life cycle, planetary systems origin and evolution, basics of astrobiology, our galaxy the Milky Way, other galaxies and galactic clusters, a general view of the Universe, its structure, evolution and fate, modern views and advanced models of cosmology as well as the synergy of micro- and macro physics, standard model, superstring theory, multiversity and worm holes. The main concepts of modern astrophysics and prospects for future studies are accompanied by numerous illustrations and a summary of the advanced projects at various astronomical facilities and space missions. Dr. Marov guides readers through a maze of complicated topics to demystify the field and open its wonders to all.

The Fundamentals Of Stellar Astrophysics

Author: George William Collins
Editor: W H Freeman & Company
ISBN: 9780716719939
Size: 10,68 MB
Format: PDF
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This textbook designed for advanced undergraduate students covers the foundations and principles in the field, and gives the necessary background for advanced courses. Beginning with a survey of some of the fundamentals of statistical mechanics, Collins builds up the physics of stellar structure step by step, showing where complexities arise due to the failure of assumptions. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

The Science Of Solar System Ices

Author: Murthy S. Gudipati
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461430763
Size: 17,30 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The role of laboratory research and simulations in advancing our understanding of solar system ices (including satellites, KBOs, comets, and giant planets) is becoming increasingly important. Understanding ice surface radiation processing, particle and radiation penetration depths, surface and subsurface chemistry, morphology, phases, density, conductivity, etc., are only a few examples of the inventory of issues that are being addressed by Earth-based laboratory research. As a response to the growing need for cross-disciplinary dialog and communication in the Planetary Ices science community, this book aims to achieve direct dialog and foster focused collaborations among the observational, modeling, and laboratory research communities.

Solar Cosmic Rays

Author: Leonty Miroshnichenko
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401596468
Size: 11,43 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.