Vertebrates

Author: S. M. Kisia
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439840520
Size: 17,31 MB
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Describing the diversity and features of various vertebrate groups, ranging from the oldest living fishes to the relatively more recent evolution of mammals, this book covers anatomical systems including organs and tissues, as well as their function and differentiation in various vertebrate groups. The authors also discuss the evolution of vertebrate groups from the earliest extinct ancestors to current living vertebrates. The book contains illustrations to clarify various issues as well as discussions of vertebrate features that enable adaptation to aquatic and terrestrial environments.

Renal Structure And Function In Vertebrates

Author: Hans Ditrich
Editor: Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781578083053
Size: 14,49 MB
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An account of the different morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and structures. It explains the essence of different functional designs and strategies that have adaptively developed for the acquisition of molecular oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide. The origins of the various respiratory systems are presented and debated from evolutionary, phylogenetic, behavioural and ecological perspectives. The book carefully outlines the interactions between the environment (the physical realm) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain) that have set the composition and patterning of extant animal life.

Biological Systems In Vertebrates

Author: J N Maina
Editor: Science Publishers
ISBN: 9781578082520
Size: 12,65 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Gives an account of the morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and attempts to explicate the basis of the common and different structural and functional designs and stratagems that have evolved for acquisition of molecular oxygen. The book has been written with a broad readership in mind: students of biology as well as experts in the disciplines of zoology, physiology, morphology, biological microscopy, biomedical engineering, and ecology and those that work or may contemplate working on materials and aspects concerning respiration in whole organisms will find it useful. Scientists in earth sciences with particular interest on the outcomes of past interactions between environmental factors (the physical domain) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain), mechanisms that have set the composition, patterning, and anatomies of extant animal life, will find the book of interest.

Muscular System Of Vertebrates

Author: Seth M. Kisia
Editor: Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781578083060
Size: 11,61 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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An account of the different morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and structures. It explains the essence of different functional designs and strategies that have adaptively developed for the acquisition of molecular oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide. The origins of the various respiratory systems are presented and debated from evolutionary, phylogenetic, behavioural and ecological perspectives. The book carefully outlines the interactions between the environment (the physical realm) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain) that have set the composition and patterning of extant animal life.

Hemoglobin Function In Vertebrates

Author: G. di Prisco
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 8847021111
Size: 16,29 MB
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This volume comprises selected contributions by internationally renowned researchers and represents the state-of-the-art in the field of hemoglobin function in vertebrates living in extreme and temperate environments. The topics have been covered from several viewpoints, including protein chemistry, molecular biology, and evolution. All the contributions chosen for publication focus on phenotypic and genetic adaptations to changing environmental conditions and on gene expression and regulation. The book provides the reader with an update in this field, which is presently enjoying a true renaissance following developments in recent years of powerful methodologies such as site-directed mutagenesis and discoveries of new roles, for example, as oxygen sensors and in nitric oxide metabolism.

Vertebrate Circadian Systems

Author: J. Aschoff
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642686516
Size: 11,61 MB
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The Mcat Biology Book

Author: Nancy Morvillo
Editor: Nova Press
ISBN: 1889057444
Size: 18,13 MB
Format: PDF
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Comprehensive, Rigorous Prep for MCAT Biology. REVISED FOR MCAT 2015. The MCAT Biology Book provides a comprehensive overview of MCAT biology appropriate for all pre-med students preparing for the MCAT exam. In twenty-one chapters, the basics of biology are described in easy-to-understand text. Illustrations help emphasize relevant topics and clarify difficult concepts. Each chapter concludes with a set of problems modeled after the MCAT exam, with complete explanation of the answers. Also, includes a thorough analysis of the MCAT verbal section. Authors Nancy Morvillo and Matthew Schmidt both obtained their Ph.D. in genetics from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

The Vertebrate Integument Volume 2

Author: Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 366246005X
Size: 15,44 MB
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The emphasis in this volume is on the structure and functional design of the integument. The book starts with a brief introduction to some basic principles of physics (mechanics) including Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. These principles are subsequently used to interpret the problems animals encounter in motion. It is in only the last 40 or so years that we have begun to understand how important a role the integument plays in the locomotion of many marine vertebrates. This involves the crossed-fiber architecture, which was first discovered in a classic study on nemertean worms. As a design principle we see that the crossed-fiber architecture is ubiquitous in nature. Research on some of the most dynamic marine vertebrates of the oceans – tuna, dolphins and sharks, and the extinct Jurassic ichthyosaurs – shows precisely how the crossed-fiber architecture contributes to high-speed swimming and (in lamnid sharks) may even aid in energy conservation. However, this design principle is not restricted to animals in the marine biota but is also found as far afield as the dinosaurs and, most recently, has been revealed as a major part of the microstructure of the most complex derivative of the integument, the feather. We see that a variety of phylogenetically diverse vertebrates take to the air by using skin flaps to glide from tree to tree or to the ground, and present detailed descriptions of innovations developed in pursuit of improved gliding capabilities in both extinct and modern day gliders. But the vertebrate integument had even greater things in store, namely true or flapping flight. Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to use the integument as a membrane in true flapping flight and these interesting extinct animals are discussed on the basis of past and cutting-edge research , most intriguingly with respect to the structure of the flight membrane. Bats, the only mammals that fly, also employ integumental flight membranes. Classic research on bat flight is reviewed and supplemented with the latest research, which shows the complexities of the wing beat cycle to be significantly different from that of birds, as revealed by particle image velocimetry. The book’s largest chapter is devoted to birds, given that they make up nearly half of the over 22,000 species of tetrapods. The flight apparatus of birds is unique in nature and is described in great detail, with innovative research highlighting the complexity of the flight structures, bird flight patterns, and behavior in a variety of species. This is complimented by new research on the brains of birds, which shows that they are more complex than previously thought. The feather made bird flight possible, and was itself made possible by β-keratin, contributing to what may be a unique biomechanical microstructure in nature, a topic discussed in some depth. A highly polarized subject concerns the origin of birds and of the feather. Alleged fossilized protofeathers (primal simple feathers) are considered on the basis of histological and taphonomic investigative studies in Chapter 6. Finally, in Chapter 7 we discuss the controversies associated with this field of research. Professor Theagarten Lingham-Soliar works at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth and is an Honorary Professor of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

The Epididymis From Molecules To Clinical Practice

Author: Bernard Robaire
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306466847
Size: 10,77 MB
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The epididymus has become increasingly important to researchers engaged in fertility and its regulation. This text provides a complete, up-to-date, in-depth review of the research on the male reproductive tract. Structure, function, and molecular mechanisms underlying the control of the efferent ducts, epididymus, and vas deferens will be reviewed.

Comparative Physiology Of Vertebrate Respiration

Author: George Morgan Hughes
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674152502
Size: 16,84 MB
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This book is a concise study of the structure and function of vertebrate respiratory systems. It describes not only the individual organ systems, but also the relationship of these systems to each other and to the animal's environment. For example, the author emphasizes that a proper understanding of respiration involves a consideration of the external environment as a source of oxygen as well as the biochemistry of the cell; and, from the evolutionary point of view, that physiological changes in the respiratory and circulatory systems are dominated by the origin of the land habit. The author's approach to the subject exemplifies that trend to the amalgamation of Zoology and Physiology, which has become increasingly marked at universities and schools in recent years. This synthesis requires, broadly, a knowledge of classical comparative anatomy, ecology, evolution, physiology and biochemistry; an enormous task, but nevertheless one in which the zoologist holds a central position. This book indicates the nature of such an eclectic approach, with the animal, in its environment and its evolution, as its focal point. Covering a rapidly changing field of research the author refers to many recent views and indicates where these differ from those commonly accepted.