Why Punish How Much

Author: Michael H. Tonry
Editor: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 019532885X
Size: 17,57 MB
Format: PDF
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Punishment, like all complex human institutions, tends to change as ways of thinking go in and out of fashion. Normative, political, social, psychological, and legal ideas concerning punishment have changed drastically over time, and especially in recent decades. Why Punish? How Much? collects essays from classical philosophers and contemporary theorists to examine these shifts. Michael Tonry has gathered a comprehensive set of readings ranging from Kant, Hegel, and Bentham to recent writings on developments in the behavioral and medical sciences. Together they cover foundations of punishment theory such as consequentialism, retributivism, and functionalism, new approaches like restorative, communitarian, and therapeutic justice, and mixed approaches that attempt to link theory and policy. This volume includes an accessible introduction that chronicles the development of punishment systems and theorizing over the course of the last two centuries. Why Punish? How Much? provides a fresh and comprehensive approach to thinking about punishment and sentencing for a broad range of law, sociology, philosophy, and criminology courses.

Placing Blame

Author: Michael S. Moore
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199599491
Size: 12,92 MB
Format: PDF
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Originally published: Oxford: Clarendon, 1997.

Why Punish

Author: Rob Canton
Editor: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 1137449047
Size: 18,72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Why do we punish? Is it because only punishment can achieve justice for victims and 'right the wrong' of a crime? Or is it justified because it reduces crime, by deterring potential offenders, offering rehabilitative treatment to others and incapacitating the most dangerous? The complex answers to this enduring question vary across time and place, and are directly linked to people's personal, cultural, social, religious and ethical commitments and even their sense of identity. This unique introduction to the philosophy of punishment provides a systematic analysis of the themes of retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, incapacitation and restorative justice. Integrating philosophical, sociological, political and ethical perspectives, it provides a thorough and wide-ranging discussion of the purposes, meanings and justifications of punishment for crime and the extent to which punishment does, could or should live up to what it claims to achieve. Why Punish? challenges criminology and criminal justice students as well as policy makers, judges, magistrates and criminal justice practitioners to think more critically about the role of punishment and the moral principles that underpin it. Bridging abstract theory with the realities of practice, Rob Canton asks what better punishment would look like and how it can be achieved.

Neuroscience For Social Work

Author: Holly C. Matto, PhD
Editor: Springer Publishing Company
ISBN: 0826108776
Size: 16,77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This clear and accessible guideówritten by social workers for social workersódescribes the most current developments in neuroscience and their practical applications for social work in education, child welfare, health, mental health, and criminal justice settings. The contributions of social work experts in these key areas of practice make this vast and ever-expanding body of neuroscientific knowledge easily understandable, with specific relevance to understanding the impact of the environment on neural mechanisms and human life course trajectories. The text examines how neuroimaging can be used to examine psychosocial treatment efficacy, discusses cross-system programmatic and policy implications that respond to the way in which toxic environments and early disrupted attachment affect brain and behavior, and addresses the importance of bioethics to inform the integration of neuroscience into social work practice. This is the only text on this topic with chapters organized around five practice settings and embedded with application skills across micro, mezzo, and macro levels. Each chapter includes an overview of the latest scientific research pertaining to the topic and discusses implications for assessment, prevention, intervention, policy, research, and ethics. Real-world case studies in each chapter enhance practice applications. Key Features: Describes the latest applications of neuroscience across social work settings in education, child welfare, health, mental health, and criminal justice Examines latest neuroscientific research for each topic and its implications for assessment, prevention, intervention, policy issues, research, and ethical/legal issues Draws clear practical implications in each chapter Written by social workers for social workers Includes the contributions of noted social work researchers, faculty, and practitioners

Punishing Race

Author: Michael Tonry
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199793034
Size: 18,21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How can it be, in a nation that elected Barack Obama, that one third of African American males born in 2001 will spend time in a state or federal prison, and that black men are seven times likelier than white men to be in prison? Blacks are much more likely than whites to be stopped by the police, arrested, prosecuted, convicted, and imprisoned, and are much less likely to have confidence in justice system officials, especially the police. In Punishing Race, Michael Tonry demonstrates in lucid, accessible language that these patterns result not from racial differences in crime or drug use but primarily from drug and crime control policies that disproportionately affect black Americans. These policies in turn stem from a lack of white empathy for black people, and from racial stereotypes and resentments provoked partly by the Republican Southern Strategy of using coded "law and order" appeals to race to gain support from white voters. White Americans, Tonry observes, have a remarkable capacity to endure the suffering of disadvantaged black and, increasingly, Hispanic men. Crime policies are among a set of social policies enacted since the 1960s that have maintained white dominance over black people despite the end of legal discrimination. To redress these injustices, Tonry offers a number of proposals: stop racial profiling by the police, shift the emphasis of drug law enforcement to treatment and prevention, eliminate mandatory sentencing laws, and change sentencing guidelines to allow judges discretion to take account of offenders' life circumstances. Those proposals are all attainable and would all reduce unjustifiable racial disparities and the collateral human and social harms they cause. A damning indictment of decades of misguided criminal justice policy, Punishing Race takes a crucial look at persisting racial injustice in America.

A Reader On Punishment

Author: Antony Duff
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198763536
Size: 19,77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Why we punish, who we punish, and how we punish are central elements of any discussion of the role of law in modern society. In this impressive collection, two leading experts on the theory of punishment have selected a range of articles which have made important and influential contributions to the way in which punishment is understood in contemporary society. The collection is prefaced by an original introduction written by the two editors, in which key concepts are identified. Each article is also prefaced by a short introduction setting out the issues to be discussed. Throughout the book the aim of the editors is to demonstrate that normative and empirical questions about punishment are deeply interrelated, and to show the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to understanding this vital social institution.

Discipline Punish

Author: Michel Foucault
Editor: Vintage
ISBN: 0307819299
Size: 20,57 MB
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In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.

Overcriminalization

Author: Douglas Husak
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198043997
Size: 10,15 MB
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The United States today suffers from too much criminal law and too much punishment. Husak describes the phenomena in some detail and explores their relation, and why these trends produce massive injustice. His primary goal is to defend a set of constraints that limit the authority of states to enact and enforce penal offenses. The book urges the weight and relevance of this topic in the real world, and notes that most Anglo-American legal philosophers have neglected it. Husak's secondary goal is to situate this endeavor in criminal theory as traditionally construed. He argues that many of the resources to reduce the size and scope of the criminal law can be derived from within the criminal law itself-even though these resources have not been used explicitly for this purpose. Additional constraints emerge from a political view about the conditions under which important rights such as the right implicated by punishment-may be infringed. When conjoined, these constraints produce what Husak calls a minimalist theory of criminal liability. Husak applies these constraints to a handful of examples-most notably, to the justifiability of drug proscriptions.

The End Of Prisons

Author: Mechthild E. Nagel
Editor: Rodopi
ISBN: 9401209235
Size: 16,86 MB
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This book brings together a collection of social justice scholars and activists who take Foucault’s concept of discipline and punishment to explain how prisons are constructed in society from nursing homes to zoos. This book expands the concept of prison to include any institution that dominates, oppresses, and controls. Criminologists and others, who have been concerned with reforming or dismantling the criminal justice system, have mostly avoided to look at larger carceral structures in society. In this book, for example, scholars and activists question the way patriarchy has incapacitated women and imagine the deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities. In a time when popular sentiment critiques the dominant role of the elites (the “one percenters”), the state’s role in policing dissenting voices, school children, LGBTQ persons, people of color, and American Indian Nations, needs to be investigated. A prison, as defined in this book, is an institution or system that oppresses and does not allow freedom for a particular group. Within this definition, we include the imprisonment of nonhuman animals and plants, which are too often overlooked.

Punishment And Inequality In America

Author: Bruce Western
Editor: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610445554
Size: 10,28 MB
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Over the last thirty years, the prison population in the United States has increased more than seven-fold to over two million people, including vastly disproportionate numbers of minorities and people with little education. For some racial and educational groups, incarceration has become a depressingly regular experience, and prison culture and influence pervade their communities. Almost 60 percent of black male high school drop-outs in their early thirties have spent time in prison. In Punishment and Inequality in America, sociologist Bruce Western explores the recent era of mass incarceration and the serious social and economic consequences it has wrought. Punishment and Inequality in America dispels many of the myths about the relationships among crime, imprisonment, and inequality. While many people support the increase in incarceration because of recent reductions in crime, Western shows that the decrease in crime rates in the 1990s was mostly fueled by growth in city police forces and the pacification of the drug trade. Getting “tough on crime” with longer sentences only explains about 10 percent of the fall in crime, but has come at a significant cost. Punishment and Inequality in America reveals a strong relationship between incarceration and severely dampened economic prospects for former inmates. Western finds that because of their involvement in the penal system, young black men hardly benefited from the economic boom of the 1990s. Those who spent time in prison had much lower wages and employment rates than did similar men without criminal records. The losses from mass incarceration spread to the social sphere as well, leaving one out of ten young black children with a father behind bars by the end of the 1990s, thereby helping perpetuate the damaging cycle of broken families, poverty, and crime. The recent explosion of imprisonment is exacting heavy costs on American society and exacerbating inequality. Whereas college or the military were once the formative institutions in young men’s lives, prison has increasingly usurped that role in many communities. Punishment and Inequality in America profiles how the growth in incarceration came about and the toll it is taking on the social and economic fabric of many American communities.