This book describes advanced research on the structures and photochemical properties of polyatomic molecules and molecular clusters having various functionalities under cold gas-phase conditions. Target molecules are crown ethers, polypeptides, large size protonated clusters, metal clusters, and other complex polyatomic molecules of special interest. A variety of advanced frequency and time-domain laser spectroscopic methods are applied. The book begins with the principle of an experimental setup for cold gas-phase molecules and various laser spectroscopic methods, followed by chapters on investigation of specific molecular systems. Through a molecular-level approach and analysis by quantum chemical calculation, it is possible to learn how atomic and molecular-level interactions (van der Waals, hydrogen-bonding, and others) control the specific properties of molecules and clusters. Those properties include molecular recognition, induced fitting, chirality, proton and hydrogen transfer, isomerization, and catalytic reaction. The information will be applicable to the design of new types of functional molecules and nanoparticles in the broad area that includes applied chemistry, drug delivery systems, and catalysts.