A Natural History Of Human Thinking

Author: Michael Tomasello
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674986830
File Size: 75,20 MB
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Tool-making or culture, language or religious belief: ever since Darwin, thinkers have struggled to identify what fundamentally differentiates human beings from other animals. Michael Tomasello weaves his twenty years of comparative studies of humans and great apes into a compelling argument that cooperative social interaction is the key to our cognitive uniqueness. Tomasello maintains that our prehuman ancestors, like today's great apes, were social beings who could solve problems by thinking. But they were almost entirely competitive, aiming only at their individual goals. As ecological changes forced them into more cooperative living arrangements, early humans had to coordinate their actions and communicate their thoughts with collaborative partners. Tomasello's "shared intentionality hypothesis" captures how these more socially complex forms of life led to more conceptually complex forms of thinking. In order to survive, humans had to learn to see the world from multiple social perspectives, to draw socially recursive inferences, and to monitor their own thinking via the normative standards of the group. Even language and culture arose from the preexisting need to work together and coordinate thoughts. A Natural History of Human Thinking is the most detailed scientific analysis to date of the connection between human sociality and cognition.

Exam Prep For A Natural History Of Human Thinking

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Acts Of Shared Intentionality In Search Of Uniquely Human Thinking A Natural History Of Human Thinking Michael Tomasello Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press 2014 Xi 178 Pp

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Becoming Human

Author: Michael Tomasello
Editor: Belknap Press
ISBN: 0674980859
File Size: 62,89 MB
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Virtually all theories of how humans have become a distinctive species focus on evolution. Here, Michael Tomasello proposes a complementary theory focused on ontogenetic processes. Built on the essential ideas of Vygotsky, his data-driven model explains how those things that make us most human are constructed during the first six years of life.

The Normative Animal

Author: Neil Roughley
Editor: Foundations of Human Interacti
ISBN: 0190846461
File Size: 38,73 MB
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It is often claimed that humans are rational, linguistic, cultural, or moral creatures. What these characterizations may all have in common is the more fundamental claim that humans are normative animals, in the sense that they are creatures whose lives are structured at a fundamental level by their relationships to norms. The various capacities singled out by discussion of rational, linguistic, cultural, or moral animals might then all essentially involve an orientation to obligations, permissions and prohibitions. And, if this is so, then perhaps it is a basic susceptibility, or proclivity to normative or deontic regulation of thought and behavior that enables humans to develop the various specific features of their life form. This volume of new essays investigates the claim that humans are essentially normative animals in this sense. The contributors do so by looking at the nature and relations of three types of norms, or putative norms-social, moral, and linguistic-and asking whether they might all be different expressions of one basic structure unique to humankind. These questions are posed by philosophers, primatologists, behavioral biologists, psychologists, linguists, and cultural anthropologists, who have collaborated on this topic for many years. The contributors are committed to the idea that understanding normativity is a two-way process, involving a close interaction between conceptual clarification and empirical research.

Our Minds Our Selves

Author: Keith Oatley
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 069117508X
File Size: 11,27 MB
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An original history of psychology told through the stories of its most important breakthroughs and the people who made them Advances in psychology have revolutionized our understanding of the human mind. Imaging technology allows researchers to monitor brain activity, letting us see what happens when we perceive, think, and feel. But technology is only part of how ideas about the mind and brain have developed over the past century and a half. In Our Minds, Our Selves, distinguished psychologist and writer Keith Oatley provides an engaging, original, and authoritative history of modern psychology told through the stories of its most important breakthroughs and the men and women who made them. Our Minds, Our Selves traverses a fascinating terrain: forms of conscious and unconscious knowledge; brain physiology; emotion; stages of mental development from infancy to adulthood; language acquisition and use; the nature of memory; mental illness; morality; free will; creativity; the mind at work in art and literature; and, most important, our ability to cooperate with one another. Controversial experiments--such as Stanley Milgram's investigation of our willingness to obey authority and inflict pain and Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues' study of behavior in a simulated prison—are covered in detail. Biographical sketches illuminate the thinkers behind key insights and turning points: historical figures such as Hermann Helmholtz, Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, B. F. Skinner, and Alan Turing; leading contemporaries such as Geoffrey Hinton, Michael Tomasello, and Tania Singer; and influential people from other fields, including Margaret Mead, Noam Chomsky, Jane Goodall, and Gabrielle Starr. Enhancing our understanding of ourselves and others, psychology holds the potential to create a better world. Our Minds, Our Selves tells the story of this most important of sciences in a new and appealing way.

Education For Knowing

Author: Paul A. Wagner
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 1475848153
File Size: 31,67 MB
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If our goal is Education for Knowing, as the title says, then we need to be guided by a conception of what knowing is. For example, we can all agree that there are “math facts” that students need to learn, and we can agree that there are general concepts and laws that students should be acquainted with. But is there more involved, perhaps something like nurturing in students a desire to probe deeper into the workings of thing? Or developing a capacity to explain why things work the way they do? Our conceptions of what genuine knowing is serve as guides to what we think the goal of education is, and they tell us how to “build a student.” However, as it turns out, there are multiple conceptions of what knowing truly involves, and these conceptions tend to be different for different sets of education stakeholders such as parents and their children, school administrators, and educational researchers. Understanding this diversity of conceptions of knowing will make it easier for representatives of the different stakeholder groups to work together to accomplish the goal of building knowing students.

Cognitive Foundations Of Natural History

Author: Scott Atran
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521438711
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Inspired by a debate between Noam Chomsky and Jean Piaget, this work traces the development of natural history from Aristotle to Darwin, and demonstrates how the science of plants and animals has emerged from the common conceptions of folkbiology.

The Natural History Of Thought In Its Practical Aspect

Author: George Wall
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"Our object is to trace the birth and progress of the thinking faculty, and to learn the manner of its growth from its earliest dawn to the maturity of its powers, in order to ascertain the proper means by which it may be molded and directed during its plastic stage"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

The Natural History Of Atheism

Author: John Stuart Blackie
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Sketches And Characters Or The Natural History Of The Human Intellects By J W Whitecross

Author: James William WHITECROSS (pseud. [i.e. Michał Wisznieski.])
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Contributions To The Natural History Of The United States Of America

Author: Louis Agassiz
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In his writing, John Muir described Louis Agassiz as one of the "men [who have]?influenced me more than any others." Learn about?what Muir aimed to do in his own work by reading Agassiz's book?The Natural History of the United States of America.?

On Human Thinking

Author: Keith Waldegrave Monsarrat
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Bulletin Of The Natural History Society Of New Brunswick

Author: Natural History Society of New Brunswick
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The Natural History Review

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The Dog

Author: Ádám Miklósi
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691176930
File Size: 52,57 MB
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An accessible and richly illustrated introduction to the natural history of dogs—from evolution, anatomy, cognition, and behavior to the relationship between dogs and humans As one of the oldest domesticated species, selectively bred over millennia to possess specific behaviors and physical characteristics, the dog enjoys a unique relationship with humans. More than any other animal, dogs are attuned to human behavior and emotions, and accordingly play a range of roles in society, from police and military work to sensory and emotional support. Selective breeding has led to the development of more than three hundred breeds that, despite vast differences, still belong to a single species, Canis familiaris. The Dog is an accessible, richly illustrated, and comprehensive introduction to the fascinating natural history and scientific understanding of this beloved species. Ádám Miklósi, a leading authority on dogs, provides an appealing overview of dogs' evolution and ecology; anatomy and biology; behavior and society; sensing, thinking, and personality; and connections to humans. Illustrated with some 250 color photographs, The Dog begins with an introductory overview followed by an exploration of the dog's prehistoric origins, including current research about where and when canine domestication first began. The book proceeds to examine dogs' biology and behavior, paying particular attention to the physiological and psychological aspects of the ways dogs see, hear, and smell, and how they communicate with other dogs and with humans. The book also describes how dogs learn about their physical and social environments and the ways they form attachments to humans. The book ends with a section showcasing a select number of dog breeds to illustrate their amazing physical variety. Beautifully designed and filled with surprising facts and insights, this book will delight anyone who loves dogs and wants to understand them better.

The Natural History Of The Mind

Author: Gordon Rattray Taylor
Editor: Penguin (Non-Classics)
ISBN:
File Size: 56,15 MB
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Translating current research into accessible terms, Taylor discusses the brain's electrical and chemical processes, amnesia, mystical states, and multiple personality and the nature of dreaming, memory, pain, and intelligence