An Introduction To Cybernetics

Author: W. Ross Ashby
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 10,80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 871
Download


An Introduction To Cybernetics

Author: William Ross Ashby
Editor: Routledge Kegan & Paul
ISBN:
Size: 20,73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Read: 571
Download

Mechanism; The determinate machine; The machine with input; Stability; The black box; Variety; Quantity of variety; Transmission of variety; Incessant transmission; Regulation and control; Regulation in biological systems; Requisite variety; The error-controlled regulator; Regulating the very large system; Amplifying regulation.

Introduction To Cybernetics

Author: William Ross Ashby
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 12,40 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 316
Download

Presents a PDF version of "Introduction to Cybernetics," written by W. Ross Ashby and provided by Principia Cybernetica. Includes references, online exercises, ordering information for the print version, and related discussion areas.

Intelligent Machines

Author: David Arthur Bell
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 10,58 MB
Format: PDF
Read: 953
Download


The Metaphorical Brain

Author: Michael A. Arbib
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN:
Size: 20,96 MB
Format: PDF
Read: 340
Download


Introduction To Economic Cybernetics

Author: Oskar Lange
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 148314870X
Size: 17,71 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 625
Download

Introduction to Economic Cybernetics introduces the reader to economic cybernetics, that is, the application of the principles of the theory of automatic control to the problems of managing the economic processes, and particularly the processes in a socialist economy. Topics covered include the general principles of regulation and control; cybernetic schemata of the theory of reproduction; the theory of stability of regulation systems; and a generalization of the theory of regulation. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of economic cybernetics, followed by a discussion on the process of automatic regulation and how it functions, with particular reference to the basic formula of the theory of regulation and cybernetic interpretation of operations on operators. The following chapters focus on cybernetic schemata of the theory of reproduction; the dynamics of regulation processes; and the practical problems in regulation. The final chapter describes a general theory of regulation formalized as a linear differential-difference ""equation of response"", and gives the solution to this equation for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous versions. This monograph will be a useful resource for practitioners of economics, physics, and mechanics.

An Introduction To Economic Cybernetics

Author: E.K.. Warriar
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 11,33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Read: 346
Download


An Introduction To Knowledge Engineering

Author: Simon Kendal
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846286670
Size: 11,83 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Read: 998
Download

An Introduction to Knowledge Engineering presents a simple but detailed exp- ration of current and established work in the ?eld of knowledge-based systems and related technologies. Its treatment of the increasing variety of such systems is designed to provide the reader with a substantial grounding in such techno- gies as expert systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, case-based reasoning systems, data mining, intelligent agents and the associated techniques and meth- ologies. The material is reinforced by the inclusion of numerous activities that provide opportunities for the reader to engage in their own research and re?ection as they progress through the book. In addition, self-assessment questions allow the student to check their own understanding of the concepts covered. The book will be suitable for both undergraduate and postgraduate students in computing science and related disciplines such as knowledge engineering, arti?cial intelligence, intelligent systems, cognitive neuroscience, robotics and cybernetics. vii Contents Foreword vii 1 An Introduction to Knowledge Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Section 1: Data, Information and Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Section 2: Skills of a Knowledge Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Section 3: An Introduction to Knowledge-Based Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2 Types of Knowledge-Based Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Section 1: Expert Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Section 2: Neural Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Section 3: Case-Based Reasoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Section 4: Genetic Algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Section 5: Intelligent Agents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Section 6: Data Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3 Knowledge Acquisition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4 Knowledge Representation and Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Section 1: Using Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Section 2: Logic, Rules and Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Section 3: Developing Rule-Based Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Section 4: Semantic Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An Introduction To Systemic Therapy With Individuals

Author: Fran Hedges
Editor: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 023080229X
Size: 10,55 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Read: 265
Download

In recent years, the benefits and applications of systemic therapy with individuals, in addition to its more traditional practice with families, has been increasingly recognized. This text provides trainees and practitioners new to this approach with a practical introduction to the key theoretical concepts and techniques.

The Evolution Of Ethics

Author: Erik Bromberg
Editor:
ISBN: 9780692692509
Size: 17,53 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Read: 668
Download

The Evolution of Ethics constructs a conceptual bridge between biology and human behavior. This is accomplished by examining the cultural and biological feedback systems that inspire the evolution of social rules. In theory, a cybernetic process is at the heart of developing ethical systems. This process occurs when biology and culture collide. The resulting conflict acts as a form of "informational feedback," which tells people that there are serious problems that need to be resolved. Conflict inspires human adaptation in a way that could extend the survival of the species. In this sense, the evolution of ethical systems is a response to the drive of the human species to survive. Additionally, a whole array of related, "rule systems," such as statutory laws, professional codes, customs, and even the rules of etiquette evolve to advance human adaptation. Ethical systems are reasoned rules of conduct that are based on past experience, whereas moral laws (informally known) evolve over centuries of time and are often influenced and expressed by human emotions. Cybernetic ethics is a merging of science with ethics. This book presents a persuasive theory of how ethics can (and should) be linked to science and mathematics. Here, there are objective moral standards that can be derived from the consequences of human actions. The evolution of ethical systems is shown as an "adaptation." Humans adapt to survive, and they do so by creating standards and rules of behavior to stop vicious cycles of pain, suffering, and death. The more organized and efficient human activities become, the more certain the survival of the species becomes. The science of cybernetics best describes this process. Mathematician Norbert Wiener first developed cybernetic science in 1947. In an evolutionary context, cybernetics means "informational feedback in dynamic systems" (such as a social system) that sustains or redirects behaviors. Cybernetic ethics as a fully developed science is expressed almost totally in the language of mathematics. This form of statistical cybernetics would employ statistics, cybernetics, and a science of human emotion to explain the evolution of ethical systems.