Blockchain For Decision Makers

Author: Romain Tormen
Editor: Packt Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1838554068
File Size: 73,34 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Understand how blockchain works and explore a variety of strategies to implement it in your organization effectively Key Features Become familiar with business challenges faced by companies when using blockchain Discover how companies implement blockchain to monetize and secure their data Study real-world examples to understand blockchain and its use in organizations Book Description In addition to cryptocurrencies, blockchain-based apps are being developed in different industries such as banking, supply chain, and healthcare to achieve digital transformation and enhance user experience. Blockchain is not only about Bitcoin or cryptocurrencies, but also about different technologies such as peer-to-peer networks, consensus mechanisms, and cryptography. These technologies together help sustain trustless environments in which digital value can be transferred between individuals without intermediaries. This book will help you understand the basics of blockchain such as consensus protocols, decentralized applications, and tokenization. You'll focus on how blockchain is used today in different industries and the technological challenges faced while implementing a blockchain strategy. The book also enables you, as a decision maker, to understand blockchain from a technical perspective and evaluate its applicability in your business. Finally, you'll get to grips with blockchain frameworks such as Hyperledger and Quorum and their usability. By the end of this book, you'll have learned about the current use cases of blockchain and be able to implement a blockchain strategy on your own. What you will learn Become well-versed with how blockchain works Understand the difference between blockchain and Bitcoin Learn how blockchain is being used in different industry verticals such as finance and retail Delve into the technological and organizational challenges of implementing blockchain Explore the possibilities that blockchain can unlock for decision makers Choose a blockchain framework best suited for your projects from options such as Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric Who this book is for This book is for CXOs, business professionals, organization leaders, decision makers, technology enthusiasts, and managers who wish to understand how blockchain is implemented in different organizations, its impact, and how it can be customized according to business needs. Prior experience with blockchain is not required.

The Blockchain And The New Architecture Of Trust

Author: Kevin Werbach
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262038935
File Size: 51,92 MB
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How the blockchain—a system built on foundations of mutual mistrust—can become trustworthy. The blockchain entered the world on January 3, 2009, introducing an innovative new trust architecture: an environment in which users trust a system—for example, a shared ledger of information—without necessarily trusting any of its components. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin is the most famous implementation of the blockchain, but hundreds of other companies have been founded and billions of dollars invested in similar applications since Bitcoin's launch. Some see the blockchain as offering more opportunities for criminal behavior than benefits to society. In this book, Kevin Werbach shows how a technology resting on foundations of mutual mistrust can become trustworthy. The blockchain, built on open software and decentralized foundations that allow anyone to participate, seems like a threat to any form of regulation. In fact, Werbach argues, law and the blockchain need each other. Blockchain systems that ignore law and governance are likely to fail, or to become outlaw technologies irrelevant to the mainstream economy. That, Werbach cautions, would be a tragic waste of potential. If, however, we recognize the blockchain as a kind of legal technology that shapes behavior in new ways, it can be harnessed to create tremendous business and social value.

Blockchain Based Smart Grids

Author: Miadreza Shafie-khah
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128178620
File Size: 17,72 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Blockchain-Based Smart Grids presents emerging applications of blockchain in electrical system and looks to future developments in the use of blockchain technology in the energy market. Rapid growth of renewable energy resources in power systems and significant developments in the telecommunication systems has resulted in new market designs being employed to cover unpredictable and distributed generation of electricity. This book considers the marriage of blockchain and grid modernization, and discusses the transaction shifts in smart grids, from centralized to peer-to-peer structures. In addition, it addresses the effective application of these structures to speed up processes, resulting in more flexible electricity systems. Aimed at moving towards blockchain-based smart grids with renewable applications, this book is useful to researchers and practitioners in all sectors of smart grids, including renewable energy providers, manufacturers and professionals involved in electricity generation from renewable sources, grid modernization and smart grid applications.

Regulating Blockchain

Author: Ioannis Lianos
Editor:
ISBN: 019884218X
File Size: 79,83 MB
Format: PDF
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The aim of this book is to understand the technological and business potential of the blockchain technology and to reflect on its legal challenges, providing an unparalleled critical analysis of the disruptive potential of this technology for the economy and the legal system.

Blockchain Foundations

Author: Mary C. Lacity
Editor:
ISBN: 1682261573
File Size: 73,46 MB
Format: PDF
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While there are many books on blockchains, this guide focuses on blockchain applications for business. The target audience is business students, professionals, and managers who want to learn about the overall blockchain landscape -- the investments, the size of markets, major players and the global reach -- as well as the potential business value of blockchain applications and the challenges that must be overcome to achieve that value. We present use cases and derive action principles for building enterprise blockchain capabilities. Readers will learn enough about the underlying technologies to speak intelligently to technology experts in the space, as the guide also covers the blockchain protocols, code bases and provides a glossary of terms. We use this guide as the textbook for our undergraduate and graduate Blockchain Fundamentals course at the University of Arkansas. Other professors interested in adopting this guide for instructional purposes are welcome to contact the author for supporting instructional materials.

Role Of Blockchain Technology In Iot Applications

Author: Peng Zhang
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128171898
File Size: 37,90 MB
Format: PDF
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Role of Blockchain Technology in IoT Applications, Volume 115 in the Advances in Computers series, reviews the latest information on this topic that promises many applications in human life. According to forecasts made by various market research/survey agencies, there will be around 50 Billion connected devices (IoT) by 2020. Updates in this new release include chapters on the Technical Aspects of Blockchain and IoT, Integrated Platforms for Blockchain-Enablement, Intersections Between IoT and Distributed Ledger, Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence: How and Why Combining These Two Groundbreaking Technologies, Blockchain Applications in Health Care and Opportunities and Advancements Due to New Information Technology Frameworks, and more. Explores blockchain technology research trends in secured device to device communication Includes updates on secure vehicular communication (VANET) using blockchain technology Provides the latest on secure IoT communication using blockchain technology Presents use cases of blockchain technology in healthcare, the food chain, ERP and other emerging areas

Blockchain For Business

Author: Jai Singh Arun
Editor: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 0135581400
File Size: 40,22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Pragmatic Guide to Driving Value and Disrupting Markets with Blockchain "Blockchain’s potential to transform businesses has generated a tremendous amount of excitement across industries. However, it can be difficult for decision makers to develop a practical approach to blockchain for their specific business requirements. By identifying and clearly describing the value of blockchain for enterprises, as well as the processes required to harness blockchain to achieve business objectives, Blockchain for Business presents a startlingly concise yet comprehensive roadmap for business leaders. This book is an excellent resource for anyone looking to leverage blockchain to transform their business." — Dr. Won-Pyo Hong, President & CEO of Samsung SDS “Much has been written about blockchain in the past few years: what it is and what it is not (at various levels of detail), as well as the technology’s long-term strategic value for companies, industries, and economies. However, what we’ve been missing is a practical, operational, ‘how to’ set of steps for creating, implementing, and operating a blockchain-based solution. This book aims to fill that gap. It’s an invaluable tool for anyone ready to take the plunge and start taking advantage of this remarkable technology.” —Irving Wladawsky-Berger, research affiliate, MIT; columnist, WSJ CIO Journal; VP Emeritus, IBM "I will never be able to adequately express how useful this book will be to my class. In addition the great chapters on cybersecurity, I loved the Integration Models, especially 'Coexistence with Systems of Record.' Legacy integration with Blockchain is a critical barrier, and you nailed it!" —Thomas Doty, JD, LLM - Adjunct Professor, University of New Hampshire Law Blockchain enables enterprises to reinvent processes and business models and to pursue radically disruptive applications. Blockchain for Business is a concise, accessible, and pragmatic guide to both the technology and the opportunities it creates. Authored by three experts from IBM’s Enterprise Blockchain practice, it introduces industry-specific and cross-industry use cases, and reviews best-practice approaches to planning and delivering blockchain projects. With a relentless focus on real-world business outcomes, the authors reveal what blockchain can do, what it can’t do yet, and where it’s headed. Understand five elements that make blockchain so disruptive: transparency, immutability, security, consensus, and smart contracts Explore key use cases: cross-border payments, food and drug safety, provenance, trade finance, clinical trials, land registries, and more See how trusted blockchain networks are facilitating entirely new business models Compare blockchain types: permissioned, permissionless, private, public, federated, and hybrid Anticipate key technical, business, regulatory, and governance challenges Build blockchain financial models, investment rubrics, and risk frameworks Organize and manage teams to transform blockchain plans into reality Whether you’re a senior decision maker, technical professional, customer, or investor, Blockchain for Business will help you cut through the hype and objectively assess blockchain’s potential in your business. Register your product for convenient access to downloads, updates, and/or corrections as they become available.

Blockchain Hurricane

Author: Kate Baucherel
Editor:
ISBN: 9781951527365
File Size: 68,26 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book gives business decision makers and students a clear overview of the history, current applications, and future potential of distributed ledgers and cryptocurrency. The hype around blockchain technology is matched only by the innovation it inspires and the skepticism it provokes. This book gives business decision makers and students a clear overview of the history, current applications, and future potential of distributed ledgers and cryptocurrency. It explores strengths and weaknesses, emerging opportunities, and perceived threats. Technical frameworks are presented in a business context to help strategists understand the risks and rewards of different approaches to blockchain implementation, and the decision factors in determining whether this is a viable solution to the problem at hand.

Be The Bank Level 01 Zero One Series For School Children Ceos Decision Makers Investors Investees Parents

Author: Anoop Bungay
Editor: MQCC Money Quality Conformity Control Organization incorporated as MortgageQuote Canada Corp.
ISBN: 1989758290
File Size: 39,32 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Discover, Learn & Master the over 15 year old (April 9, 2005), World’s First, Simple, Safe, Tested, Trusted, Trademark “Principles of ‘BlockChain’™”-based Peer-to-Peer (P2P)/Private/Crypto/Secret/Shadow Finance System-Network Engineered to Create Multi-Generational Wealth; Built on National-International Standards of 119+ Countries, Recognized for Manufacturing Trust™ by the UN; OECD™, WIPO™ & WTO™.

Halal Cryptocurrency Management

Author: Mohd Ma'Sum Billah
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030107493
File Size: 30,15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The growth of Islamic finance today is significant, making it timely to meet the market demand across the world and particularly for Muslim countries by producing a cryptocurrency model under the Shari’ah ethical principles. This book addresses core components of cryptocurrency within the Maqasid al-Shari’ah in enabling students, academics, users, traders, issuers, promoters, facilitators, managers, regulators, decision makers, blockchain technology providers, financial authorities, and other relevant professionals to understand Shari’ah cryptocurrency and its practical mechanisms. Among the issues covered are corporate understanding, global phenomena and world view, the Shari’ah model, SWOT analysis, innovation, conventional practices and the Halaldichotomy, regulatory standards, blockchain and its technological paradigm, practicality, establishment, and operational mechanisms, Zakat and Waqf through cryptocurrency, risk factors, and takaful solution. This book establishes a Halal alternative model of cryptocurrency management within the Maqasid al-Shari’ah to meet the contemporary global market demand.

Building Value With Blockchain Technology

Author: Sheila Warren
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 33,19 MB
Format: PDF
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We are providing businesses, governments and other organizations with a blockchain value framework to help them build out a business case for blockchain investment. This paper builds upon the idea that blockchain deployment is not an end goal. When done right, blockchain is all about rethinking business models, rethinking relationships between companies and between companies and customers, and is, at its heart, a strategic change effort. Therefore, this toolkit helps decision-makers see how blockchain value drivers may map to organizational objectives. Through this alignment, organizations can understand whether blockchain is worth the investment for their specific circumstances and make strategic decisions on whether they should or should not invest in the technology – keeping in mind that blockchain is just one option for organizations looking to digitize.

The Decision Maker S Handbook To Data Science

Author: Stylianos Kampakis
Editor: Apress
ISBN: 1484254945
File Size: 76,49 MB
Format: PDF
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Data science is expanding across industries at a rapid pace, and the companies first to adopt best practices will gain a significant advantage. To reap the benefits, decision makers need to have a confident understanding of data science and its application in their organization. It is easy for novices to the subject to feel paralyzed by intimidating buzzwords, but what many don’t realize is that data science is in fact quite multidisciplinary—useful in the hands of business analysts, communications strategists, designers, and more. With the second edition of The Decision Maker’s Handbook to Data Science, you will learn how to think like a veteran data scientist and approach solutions to business problems in an entirely new way. Author Stylianos Kampakis provides you with the expertise and tools required to develop a solid data strategy that is continuously effective. Ethics and legal issues surrounding data collection and algorithmic bias are some common pitfalls that Kampakis helps you avoid, while guiding you on the path to build a thriving data science culture at your organization. This updated and revised second edition, includes plenty of case studies, tools for project assessment, and expanded content for hiring and managing data scientists Data science is a language that everyone at a modern company should understand across departments. Friction in communication arises most often when management does not connect with what a data scientist is doing or how impactful data collection and storage can be for their organization. The Decision Maker’s Handbook to Data Science bridges this gap and readies you for both the present and future of your workplace in this engaging, comprehensive guide. What You Will Learn Understand how data science can be used within your business. Recognize the differences between AI, machine learning, and statistics. Become skilled at thinking like a data scientist, without being one. Discover how to hire and manage data scientists. Comprehend how to build the right environment in order to make your organization data-driven. Who This Book Is For Startup founders, product managers, higher level managers, and any other non-technical decision makers who are thinking to implement data science in their organization and hire data scientists. A secondary audience includes people looking for a soft introduction into the subject of data science.

Blockchain Platform A Complete Guide 2019 Edition

Author: Gerardus Blokdyk
Editor: 5starcooks
ISBN: 9780655841067
File Size: 27,97 MB
Format: PDF
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How do you manage blockchain platform risk? Does blockchain platform create potential expectations in other areas that need to be recognized and considered? What key stakeholder process output measure(s) does blockchain platform leverage and how? Who are the blockchain platform decision makers? Are you assessing blockchain platform and risk? Defining, designing, creating, and implementing a process to solve a challenge or meet an objective is the most valuable role... In EVERY group, company, organization and department. Unless you are talking a one-time, single-use project, there should be a process. Whether that process is managed and implemented by humans, AI, or a combination of the two, it needs to be designed by someone with a complex enough perspective to ask the right questions. Someone capable of asking the right questions and step back and say, 'What are we really trying to accomplish here? And is there a different way to look at it?' This Self-Assessment empowers people to do just that - whether their title is entrepreneur, manager, consultant, (Vice-)President, CxO etc... - they are the people who rule the future. They are the person who asks the right questions to make Blockchain Platform investments work better. This Blockchain Platform All-Inclusive Self-Assessment enables You to be that person. All the tools you need to an in-depth Blockchain Platform Self-Assessment. Featuring 917 new and updated case-based questions, organized into seven core areas of process design, this Self-Assessment will help you identify areas in which Blockchain Platform improvements can be made. In using the questions you will be better able to: - diagnose Blockchain Platform projects, initiatives, organizations, businesses and processes using accepted diagnostic standards and practices - implement evidence-based best practice strategies aligned with overall goals - integrate recent advances in Blockchain Platform and process design strategies into practice according to best practice guidelines Using a Self-Assessment tool known as the Blockchain Platform Scorecard, you will develop a clear picture of which Blockchain Platform areas need attention. Your purchase includes access details to the Blockchain Platform self-assessment dashboard download which gives you your dynamically prioritized projects-ready tool and shows your organization exactly what to do next. You will receive the following contents with New and Updated specific criteria: - The latest quick edition of the book in PDF - The latest complete edition of the book in PDF, which criteria correspond to the criteria in... - The Self-Assessment Excel Dashboard - Example pre-filled Self-Assessment Excel Dashboard to get familiar with results generation - In-depth and specific Blockchain Platform Checklists - Project management checklists and templates to assist with implementation INCLUDES LIFETIME SELF ASSESSMENT UPDATES Every self assessment comes with Lifetime Updates and Lifetime Free Updated Books. Lifetime Updates is an industry-first feature which allows you to receive verified self assessment updates, ensuring you always have the most accurate information at your fingertips.

Blockchain Technology For Industry 4 0

Author: Rodrigo da Rosa Righi
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811511373
File Size: 78,48 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book explores recent advances in blockchain technology and its impact on Industry 4.0 via advanced technologies. It provides an in-depth analysis of the step by step evolution of Industry 4.0 and blockchain technologies for creating the next-generation, secure, decentralized, distributed and trusted industry environment and enhancing the productivity of industries. The book describes how blockchain technology makes the industrial internet (Industry 4.0) a transparent, reliable and secure environment for people, processes, systems, and services, presenting a strong, technological and conceptual framework and roadmap for decision-makers involved in the transformation of any area of industry.

Blockchain Enabled Applications

Author: Vikram Dhillon
Editor: Apress
ISBN: 1484230817
File Size: 57,77 MB
Format: PDF
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Work with blockchain and understand its potential application beyond cryptocurrencies in the domains of healthcare, Internet of Things, finance, decentralized organizations, and open science. Featuring case studies and practical insights generated from a start-up spun off from the author’s own lab, this book covers a unique mix of topics not found in others and offers insight into how to overcome real hurdles that arise as the market and consumers grow accustomed to blockchain based start-ups. You'll start with a review of the historical origins of blockchain and explore the basic cryptography needed to make the blockchain work for Bitcoin. You will then learn about the technical advancements made in the surrounded ecosystem: the Ethereum virtual machine, Solidity, Colored Coins, the Hyperledger Project, Blockchain-as-a-service offered through IBM, Microsoft and more. This book looks at the consequences of machine-to-machine transactions using the blockchain socially, technologically, economically and politically. Blockchain Enabled Applications provides you with a clear perspective of the ecosystem that has developed around the blockchain and the various industries it has penetrated. What You’ll Learn Implement the code-base from Fabric and Sawtooth, two open source blockchain-efforts being developed under the Hyperledger Project Evaluate the benefits of integrating blockchain with emerging technologies, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence in the cloud Use the practical insights provided by the case studies to your own projects or start-up ideas Set up a development environment to compile and manage projects Who This Book Is For Developers who are interested in learning about the blockchain as a data-structure, the recent advancements being made and how to implement the code-base. Decision makers within large corporations (product managers, directors or CIO level executives) interested in implementing the blockchain who need more practical insights and not just theory.

Intelligent And Fuzzy Techniques In Big Data Analytics And Decision Making

Author: Cengiz Kahraman
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030237567
File Size: 48,64 MB
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This book includes the proceedings of the Intelligent and Fuzzy Techniques INFUS 2019 Conference, held in Istanbul, Turkey, on July 23–25, 2019. Big data analytics refers to the strategy of analyzing large volumes of data, or big data, gathered from a wide variety of sources, including social networks, videos, digital images, sensors, and sales transaction records. Big data analytics allows data scientists and various other users to evaluate large volumes of transaction data and other data sources that traditional business systems would be unable to tackle. Data-driven and knowledge-driven approaches and techniques have been widely used in intelligent decision-making, and they are increasingly attracting attention due to their importance and effectiveness in addressing uncertainty and incompleteness. INFUS 2019 focused on intelligent and fuzzy systems with applications in big data analytics and decision-making, providing an international forum that brought together those actively involved in areas of interest to data science and knowledge engineering. These proceeding feature about 150 peer-reviewed papers from countries such as China, Iran, Turkey, Malaysia, India, USA, Spain, France, Poland, Mexico, Bulgaria, Algeria, Pakistan, Australia, Lebanon, and Czech Republic.

Intelligent Analytics With Advanced Multi Industry Applications

Author: Sun, Zhaohao
Editor: IGI Global
ISBN: 1799849643
File Size: 72,28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Many fundamental technological and managerial issues surrounding the development and implementation of intelligent analytics within multi-industry applications remain unsolved. There are still questions surrounding the foundation of intelligent analytics, the elements, the big characteristics, and the effects on business, management, technology, and society. Research is devoted to answering these questions and understanding how intelligent analytics can improve healthcare, mobile commerce, web services, cloud services, blockchain, 5G development, digital transformation, and more. Intelligent Analytics With Advanced Multi-Industry Applications is a critical reference source that explores cutting-edge theories, technologies, and methodologies of intelligent analytics with multi-industry applications and emphasizes the integration of artificial intelligence, business intelligence, big data, and analytics from a perspective of computing, service, and management. This book also provides real-world applications of the proposed concept of intelligent analytics to e-SMACS (electronic, social, mobile, analytics, cloud, and service) commerce and services, healthcare, the internet of things, the sharing economy, cloud computing, blockchain, and Industry 4.0. This book is ideal for scientists, engineers, educators, university students, service and management professionals, policymakers, decision makers, practitioners, stakeholders, researchers, and others who have an interest in how intelligent analytics are being implemented and utilized in diverse industries.

Decision Analytics Applications In Industry

Author: P. K. Kapur
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811536430
File Size: 43,69 MB
Format: PDF
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This book presents a range of qualitative and quantitative analyses in areas such as cybersecurity, sustainability, multivariate analysis, customer satisfaction, parametric programming, software reliability growth modeling, and blockchain technology, to name but a few. It also highlights integrated methods and practices in the areas of machine learning and genetic algorithms. After discussing applications in supply chains and logistics, cloud computing, six sigma, production management, big data analysis, satellite imaging, game theory, biometric systems, quality, and system performance, the book examines the latest developments and breakthroughs in the field of science and technology, and provides novel problem-solving methods. The themes discussed in the book link contributions by researchers and practitioners from different branches of engineering and management, and hailing from around the globe. These contributions provide scholars with a platform to derive maximum utility in the area of analytics by subscribing to the idea of managing business through system sciences, operations, and management. Managers and decision-makers can learn a great deal from the respective chapters, which will help them devise their own business strategies and find real-world solutions to complex industrial problems.

Basic Blockchain

Author: David Shrier
Editor: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1472144821
File Size: 52,95 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The only book you need to understand blockchain: what it is, how it works and how it will transform business, society and our everyday lives. Basic Blockchain is an accessible, non-technical introduction to a revolutionary technology. 'Makes it easy for the average business executive to understand blockchain' -- Chris Larsen, founder and chairman, Ripple 'An essential tool for those looking to distinguish information from noise' -- Eva Kaili, MEP and Chair of The Committee for the Future of Science and Technology A revolution is under way across the globe, yet very few people understand it. Basic Blockchain will explain everything you need to know to understand the technology that will soon disrupt and revolutionise everything from financial and health services to the property market and how we vote. Born of an obscure body of research on game theory developed by NASA, originally championed by drug dealers seeking to launder ill-gotten gains, accelerated by entrepreneurs seeking to improve financial access for the poor, funded by giant corporate interests attracted to the potential for billions of dollars of cost savings, blockchain heralds a new era of financial inclusion, legal inclusion for the dispossessed and lower prices for consumers. In short, it will enact radical change on our lives. In this book, David L. Shrier, one of MIT and Oxford University's leading futurists, explains for the general reader: - The history of blockchain, its apocryphal progenitor Satoshi Nakamoto and the socioeconomic context of its origins in the 2008 financial crisis. - How blockchain works, including the core technologies that drive it such as cryptographic hashes and network theory, all described in simple, understandable terms. - The potential of blockchain, including its impact on our jobs, industry and society as a whole. Blockchain will disrupt and transform our world in profound ways. This accessible book, written by a global authority on blockchain, is the essential introduction to the next technological revolution.

The Fine Print In Smart Contracts

Author: Joshua S. Gans
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 50,21 MB
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One of the purported benefits of blockchain technologies is the ability to house what have been termed "smart' contracts. Such contracts are potentially self-executing depending on the state of information recorded on a blockchain ledger. This paper examines the capabilities of smart contracts from an economic perspective. It is demonstrated that by improving observability and reducing the costs of verification of contract obligation performance, the space of feasible contracts can be enlarged. Moreover, by providing commitments to various monetary payments, a blockchain can potentially create a foundation to house certain mechanisms that have been shown to overcome difficulties of contractual incompleteness. This is demonstrated using a simple international trade environment. Thus, even though smart contracts must respect the incentives of decision-makers in their obligations, they have the potential to use easily verifiable elements to create incentives to reduce hold-up and other contractual difficulties.