Developing Orthographies For Unwritten Languages

Autore: Michael Cahill
Editore: Summer Inst of Linguistics
ISBN: 9781556713477
Grandezza: 18,74 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 7111

While investigating endangered languages, many researchers become interested in developing literacy for these languages. However, often their linguistic training has not provided practical guidance in this area. This book, with contributions by experienced practitioners, helps fill this gap. Both foundational theory and specific case studies are addressed in this work. Non-linguistic factors are described, particularly sociolinguistic issues that determine acceptability of orthographies. A principled approach to the level of phonological representation for orthographies is proposed, applying recent phonological theory. The thorny issues of how to determine word breaks and how to mark tone in an orthography are explored. "Overly hasty orthographies" and the benefits of allowing time for an orthography to settle are discussed. Principles of the foundational chapters are further exemplified by detailed case studies from Mexico, Peru, California, Nepal, and Southeast Asia, which vividly illustrate the variety of local conditions that must be taken into account. The combination of theoretical and practical makes this book unique. It will benefit those involved in helping establish orthographies for hitherto-unwritten languages, and provide concrete guidance through crucial issues. Michael Cahill (Ph.D. 1999, Ohio State University) developed the Konni orthography in Ghana. He was SIL's International Linguistics Coordinator for eleven years, and is on the LSA's Committee on Endangered Languages and their Preservation. Keren Rice (Ph.D. 1976, University of Toronto) helped standardize the orthography of Slavey, and has taught on orthography development at InField/CoLang. She was LSA President in 2012 and is currently University Professor at the University of Toronto.

The Oxford Handbook Of Endangered Languages

Autore: Kenneth L. Rehg
Editore: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190610034
Grandezza: 48,24 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 4317

The endangered languages crisis is widely acknowledged among scholars who deal with languages and indigenous peoples as one of the most pressing problems facing humanity, posing moral, practical, and scientific issues of enormous proportions. Simply put, no area of the world is immune from language endangerment. The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages, in 39 chapters, provides a comprehensive overview of the efforts that are being undertaken to deal with this crisis. A comprehensive reference reflecting the breadth of the field, the Handbook presents in detail both the range of thinking about language endangerment and the variety of responses to it, and broadens understanding of language endangerment, language documentation, and language revitalization, encouraging further research. The Handbook is organized into five parts. Part 1, Endangered Languages, addresses the fundamental issues that are essential to understanding the nature of the endangered languages crisis. Part 2, Language Documentation, provides an overview of the issues and activities of concern to linguists and others in their efforts to record and document endangered languages. Part 3, Language Revitalization, includes approaches, practices, and strategies for revitalizing endangered and sleeping ("dormant") languages. Part 4, Endangered Languages and Biocultural Diversity, extends the discussion of language endangerment beyond its conventional boundaries to consider the interrelationship of language, culture, and environment, and the common forces that now threaten the sustainability of their diversity. Part 5, Looking to the Future, addresses a variety of topics that are certain to be of consequence in future efforts to document and revitalize endangered languages.

Creating Orthographies For Endangered Languages

Autore: Mari C. Jones
Editore: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107148359
Grandezza: 27,27 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 702

Creating an orthography is often seen as a key component of language revitalisation. Encoding an endangered variety can enhance its status and prestige. In speech communities that are fragmented dialectally or geographically, a common writing system may help create a sense of unified identity, or help keep a language alive by facilitating teaching and learning. Despite clear advantages, creating an orthography for an endangered language can also bring challenges, and this volume debates the following critical questions: whose task should this be - that of the linguist or the speech community? Should an orthography be maximally distanciated from that of the language of wider communication for ideological reasons, or should its main principles coincide for reasons of learnability? Which local variety should be selected as the basis of a common script? Is a multilectal script preferable to a standardised orthography? And can creating an orthography create problems for existing native speakers?

African Linguistics Across The Disciplines

Autore: Samuel Gyasi Obeng
Editore: Language Science Press
ISBN: 3961102120
Grandezza: 22,89 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Docs
Vista: 6055

Since the hiring of its first Africanist linguist Carleton Hodge in 1964, Indiana University’s Department of Linguistics has had a strong and continuing presence in the study of African languages and linguistics through the work of its faculty and of its graduates on the faculties of many other universities. Research on African linguistics at IU has covered some of the major language groups spoken on the African continent. Carleton Hodge’s work on Ancient Egyptian and Hausa, Paul Newman’s work on Hausa and Chadic languages, and Roxanna Ma Newman’s work on Hausa language structure and pedagogy have been some of the most important studies on Afro-Asiatic linguistics. With respect to Niger-Congo languages, the work of Charles Bird on Bambara and the Mande languages, Robert Botne’s work on Bantu structure (especially tense and aspect), Samuel Obeng and Colin Painter’s work on Ghanaian Languages (phonetics, phonology, and pragmatics), Robert Port’s studies on Swahili, and Erhard Voeltz's studies on Bantu linguistics are considered some of the most influential studies in the sub-field. On Nilo Saharan languages, the work of Tim Shopen on Songhay stands out. IU Linguistics has also forwarded theoretical work on African languages, such as John Goldsmith’s seminal research on tone in African languages. The African linguistics faculty at IU have either founded or edited important journals in African Studies, African languages, and African linguistics, including Africa Today, Studies in African Linguistics, and Journal of African Languages and Linguistics. In 1972, the Indiana University Department of Linguistics hosted the Third Annual Conference of African Linguistics. Proceedings of that conference were published by Indiana University Publications (African Series, vol. 7). In 1986, IU hosted the Seventeenth Annual Conference of African Linguistics with Paul Newman and Robert Botne editing the proceedings in a volume entitled Current Approaches to African Linguistics, vol. 5. In 2016, Indiana University hosted the 48th Annual Conference on African Linguistics with the theme African Linguistics Across the Disciplines. Proceedings of that meeting are published in this volume. The papers presented in this volume reflect the diversity of opportunities for language study in Africa. This collection of descriptive and theoretical work is the fruit of data gathering both in-country and abroad by researchers of languages spoken across the continent, from Sereer-sin in the west to Somali in the northeast to Ikalanga in the south. The range of topics in this volume is also broad, representative of the varied field work in country and abroad that inspires research in African linguistics. This collection of papers spans the disciplines of phonology (both segmental and suprasegmental), morphology (both morphophonological and morphosyntactic), syntax, semantics, and language policy. The data and analyses presented in this volume offer a cross-disciplinary view of linguistic topics from the many under-resourced languages of Africa.

Standard Alphabet For Reducing Unwritten Languages And Foreign Graphic Systems To A Uniform Orthography In European Letters

Autore: Richard Lepsius
Grandezza: 31,11 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 2387

Orthography As Social Action

Autore: Alexandra Jaffe
Editore: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 1614511039
Grandezza: 11,67 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 835

The chapters in this edited volume explore the sociolinguistic implications of orthographic and scriptural practices in a diverse range of communicative contexts, ranging from schoolrooms to internet discussion boards. The focus is on the way that scriptural practices both index and constitute social hierarchies, identities and relationships and in some cases, become the focus for public language ideological debates. Capitalizing on the now robust body of literature on orthographic choice and debate in sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics, the volume addresses a number of cross-cutting themes that connect orthographic practices to areas of contemporary interest in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. These themes include: the different social implications of self vs. other representation and the permeability of the personal/social and the public/private; how scriptural practices ("inscription") serve as sites for social discipline; the historical and intertextual frameworks for the meaning potentials of orthographic choice (relating to issues of genre and style); and writing as a broader semiotic field: the visual and esthetic dimensions of texts and metalinguistic "play" in spelling and its ambiguous implications for writer stance.

Mapping Applied Linguistics

Autore: Christopher J. Hall
Editore: Routledge
ISBN: 1136836233
Grandezza: 47,61 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 8984

Mapping Applied Linguistics: A Guide for Students and Practitioners provides an innovative and wide-ranging introduction to the full scope of applied linguistics. Incorporating both socio-cultural and cognitive perspectives, the book maps the diverse and constantly expanding range of theories, methods and issues faced by students and practitioners alike. Practically oriented and ideally suited to students new to the subject area, the book provides in-depth coverage of: language teaching and education, literacy and language disorders language variation and world Englishes language policy and planning lexicography and forensic linguistics multilingualism and translation. Including real data and international examples, the book features further reading and exercises in each chapter, fieldwork suggestions and a full glossary of key terms. An interactive Companion Website also provides a wealth of additional resources. This book will be essential reading for students studying applied linguistics, TESOL, general linguistics, and education at the advanced undergraduate or master’s degree level. It is also the ideal gateway for practitioners to better understand the wider scope of their work.

Research Methods In Sign Language Studies

Autore: Eleni Orfanidou
Editore: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118345967
Grandezza: 36,75 MB
Formato: PDF, Docs
Vista: 5709

Research Methods in Sign Language Studies is a landmark work on sign language research, which spans the fields of linguistics, experimental and developmental psychology, brain research, and language assessment. Examines a broad range of topics, including ethical and political issues, key methodologies, and the collection of linguistic, cognitive, neuroscientific, and neuropsychological data Provides tips and recommendations to improve research quality at all levels and encourages readers to approach the field from the perspective of diversity rather than disability Incorporates research on sign languages from Europe, Asia, North and South America, and Africa Brings together top researchers on the subject from around the world, including many who are themselves deaf

Languages In Africa

Autore: Elizabeth C. Zsiga
Editore: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626161534
Grandezza: 48,62 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 7274

People in many African communities live within a series of concentric circles when it comes to language. In a small group, a speaker uses an often unwritten and endangered mother tongue that is rarely used in school. A national indigenous language—written, widespread, sometimes used in school—surrounds it. An international language like French or English, a vestige of colonialism, carries prestige, is used in higher education, and promises mobility—and yet it will not be well known by its users. The essays in Languages in Africa explore the layers of African multilingualism as they affect language policy and education. Through case studies ranging across the continent, the contributors consider multilingualism in the classroom as well as in domains ranging from music and film to politics and figurative language. The contributors report on the widespread devaluing and even death of indigenous languages. They also investigate how poor teacher training leads to language-related failures in education. At the same time, they demonstrate that education in a mother tongue can work, linguists can use their expertise to provoke changes in language policies, and linguistic creativity thrives in these multilingual communities.

Language Change

Autore: Goparaju Sambasiva Rao
Editore: Academic Foundation
ISBN: 9788171880577
Grandezza: 35,89 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 6765

Outlines Of A History Of The German Language

Autore: H.A. Strong
Editore: Рипол Классик
ISBN: 1149437138
Grandezza: 43,12 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 6540

Writing And Society

Autore: Florian Coulmas
Editore: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139619675
Grandezza: 28,20 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 5791

How does writing relate to speech? What impact does it have on social organisation and development? How do unwritten languages differ from those that have a written form and tradition? This book is a general account of the place of writing in society. Drawing on contemporary and historical examples, from clay tablets to touchscreen displays, the book explores the functions of writing and written language, analysing its consequences for language, society, economy and politics. It examines the social causes of illiteracy, demonstrating that institutions of central importance to modern society are built upon writing and written texts, and are characterised by specific forms of communication. It explores the social dimensions of spelling and writing reform, as well as of digital literacy, a new mode of expression and communication posing novel challenges to the student of language in society.

Missionary Linguistics Ii Ling Stica Misionera Ii

Autore: Otto Zwartjes
Editore: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027285330
Grandezza: 27,37 MB
Formato: PDF, Docs
Vista: 7352

This is the second volume to be dedicated to the pioneering linguistic work produced by the religious missionaries who, within the scope of the European colonial enterprises along the period 1550–1850, described dozens of autochthonous languages, many of which are only known today thanks to their endeavours. The twelve papers joint in the present volume — which dedicated special attention to the orthographical and phonological dimension of their work — provide a comprehensive picture of the descriptive problems faced by these linguists avant la lettre, notably: the difficulties faced before the less familiar features of these languages, such as vowel quantity, accentuation, tonality, nasalization, glottalization, ‘gutturalization’; the building of (re)definitions and the creation of a new metalanguage, like ‘saltillo’, ‘guturaciones’, etc.; The book elucidates the creativity and innovations proposed by individual missionaries and the instructive and pedagogical dimension of their work.

Ling Stica Misionera Ii

Autore: Otto Zwartjes
Editore: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027246009
Grandezza: 59,98 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Docs
Vista: 1291

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Linguistik Essentials Anglistik Amerikanistik

Autore: Bernd Kortmann
ISBN: 9783464006269
Grandezza: 74,48 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 5268

A Vet In Somalia

Autore: Charles Kingsley
Editore: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1477102841
Grandezza: 16,22 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 5368

This is a true story, but because it took place so long ago it may not be true chronological sequence. The more I write the more episodes and incidents come back to me, the more real it is in remembering and I can still see the people and places vividly in my mind.

Autore: Samuel E. Martin
Editore: Tuttle Publishing
ISBN: 9780804837712
Grandezza: 16,43 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 3295

By one of the leading scholars of East Asian languages, this is the first comprehensive book on Korean grammar in English. With a detailed analysis of modern Korean as it's used in both North and South Korea, Professor Martin provides explanations and translation tips for virtually all puzzling grammatical structures. In addition, modern usage is traced back to the fifteenth century, making this book essential to anyone reading older Korean texts. Including character tables and an appendix of the radicals and their names A Reference Grammar of Korean will prove indispensable to students and is the definitive reference work for all those involved in Korean studies.