Evolution And The Levels Of Selection

Author: Samir Okasha
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199267979
File Size: 77,95 MB
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Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? Samir Okasha provides a comprehensive analysis of the debate in evolutionary biology over the levels of selection, focusing on conceptual, philosophical and foundational questions. A systematic framework is developed for thinking about natural selection acting at multiple levels of the biological hierarchy; the framework is then used to help resolve outstanding issues. Considerable attention is paid to the concept of causality as it relates to the levels of selection, in particular the idea that natural selection at one hierarchical level can have effects that 'filter' up or down to other levels. Unlike previous work in this area by philosophers of science, full account is taken of the recent biological literature on 'major evolutionary transitions' and the recent resurgence of interest in multi-level selection theory among biologists. Other biological topics discussed include Price's equation, kin and group selection, the gene's eye view, evolutionary game theory, outlaws and selfish genetic elements, species and clade selection, and the evolution of individuality. Philosophical topics discussed include reductionism and holism, causation and correlation, the nature of hierarchical organization, and realism and pluralism.

Social Evolution And Inclusive Fitness Theory

Author: James A.R. Marshall
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691183333
File Size: 28,97 MB
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Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory argues that a theory first presented in 1963 by William D. Hamilton—inclusive fitness theory—provides the most fundamental and general explanation for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior in the natural world. James Marshall guides readers through the vast and confusing literature on the evolution of social behavior, introducing and explaining the competing theories that claim to provide answers to questions such as why animals evolve to behave altruistically. Using simple statistical language and techniques that practicing biologists will be familiar with, he provides a comprehensive yet easily understandable treatment of key concepts and their repeated misinterpretations. Particular attention is paid to how more realistic features of behavior, such as nonadditivity and conditionality, can complicate analysis. Marshall highlights the general problem of identifying the underlying causes of evolutionary change, and proposes fruitful approaches to doing so in the study of social evolution. Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory describes how inclusive fitness theory addresses both simple and complex social scenarios, the controversies surrounding the theory, and how experimental work supports the theory as the most powerful explanation for social behavior and its evolution.

Natural Selection

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ISBN: 0195361571
File Size: 41,95 MB
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Evolution And The Moral Sentiments

Author: Edward Justin D'Arms
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 46,57 MB
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Philosophy Of Biology

Author: Samir Okasha
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019880699X
File Size: 60,11 MB
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Over the last forty years the philosophy of biology has emerged as an important sub-discipline of the philosophy of science. Covering some of science's most divisive topics, such as philosophical issues in genetics, it also encompasses areas where modern biology has increasingly impinged on traditional philosophical questions, such as free will, essentialism, and nature vs nurture. In this Very Short Introduction Samir Okasha outlines the core issues with which contemporary philosophy of biology is engaged. Offering a whistle-stop tour of the history of biology, he explores key ideas and paradigm shifts throughout the centuries, including areas such as the theory of evolution by natural selection; the concepts of function and design; biological individuality; and the debate over adaptationism. Throughout Okasha makes clear the relevance of biology for understanding human beings, human society, and our place in the natural world, and the importance of engaging with these issues. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Evolutionary Restraints

Author: Mark E. Borrello
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226067025
File Size: 31,39 MB
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Much of the evolutionary debate since Darwin has focused on the level at which natural selection occurs. Most biologists acknowledge multiple levels of selection—from the gene to the species. The debate about group selection, however, is the focus of Mark E. Borrello’s Evolutionary Restraints. Tracing the history of biological attempts to determine whether selection leads to the evolution of fitter groups, Borrello takes as his focus the British naturalist V. C. Wynne-Edwards, who proposed that animals could regulate their own populations and thus avoid overexploitation of their resources. By the mid-twentieth century, Wynne-Edwards became an advocate for group selection theory and led a debate that engaged the most significant evolutionary biologists of his time, including Ernst Mayr, G. C. Williams, and Richard Dawkins. This important dialogue bled out into broader conversations about population regulation, environmental crises, and the evolution of human social behavior. By examining a single facet in the long debate about evolution, Borrello provides powerful insight into an intellectual quandary that remains relevant and alive to this day.

Handbook Of Human Molecular Evolution

Author: Dr. David N. Cooper
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 12,97 MB
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Levels Of Selection In Evolution

Author: Laurent Keller
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691007045
File Size: 48,25 MB
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Evolutionary biologists have recognised that natural selection operates for the good of lower-level units (the individual, the cell, even the gene) rather than the good of the group. In this volume, 12 scientists discuss why this should be the case.

The Units Of Evolution

Author: Marc Ereshefsky
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262050449
File Size: 39,91 MB
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The Fundamentals series introduces students to the principles of the law by way of clear text combined with visual aids, tools and diagrams to enable an easy understanding of the subject without sacrificing the detail that is required for proper comprehension. Each title assumes no level of prior knowledge, allowing the book to be used for those new to the subject and for distance learning. Criminal Law - The Fundamentals includes full coverage of all topics likely to be studied on Criminal Law courses and it includes summaries of the key Law Commission's proposals for reform where relevant.

Profiles In Cultural Evolution

Author: A. Terry Rambo
Editor: University of Michigan Museum
ISBN: 0915703238
File Size: 36,64 MB
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Evolution Of Social Insect Colonies

Author: Rossiter Henry Crozier
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN:
File Size: 17,97 MB
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This book is about the genetics and behaviour of individuals within colonies of social insects - bees, wasps, ants, and termites. Colonial living is characterized by division of labour and finely coordinated organization, by reproductive function being limited to certain individuals, by cooperative brood care, and by the presence of non-reproductive workers. Within a colony, however, many events are the result of conflicts between individuals seeking to maximize their own interests. Ever since Darwin, this interplay of cooperation and conflict has raised many important questions in evolutionary biology, especially about how cooperative behaviour is maintained in the absence of direct reproduction by workers. How is the heritable component of this behaviour passed on? Crozier and Pamilo's contribution is to analyse the genetic basis of the patterns of reproduction and resource allocation found in social insect colonies. This is done more comprehensively and with greater depth and insight than in any previous study, and is a significant step forward in the fields of population genetics and social evolution.

Reports Of The National Center For Science Education

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File Size: 17,72 MB
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Behavior Analysis And Learning

Author: W. David Pierce
Editor: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall
ISBN:
File Size: 45,13 MB
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This introduction to behaviour analysis and learning focuses on basic research findings and illustrates behaviour principles with everyday human examples. It covers the range of basic research on behaviour analysis and learning and includes a chapter on applied behaviour analysis.

Evolution

Author: Douglas J. Futuyma
Editor: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
ISBN:
File Size: 11,18 MB
Format: PDF
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Douglas Futuyma presents an overview of current thinking on theories of evolution, aimed at an undergraduate audience.

Human Evolution

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ISBN:
File Size: 30,59 MB
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The Evolutionary Process

Author: Verne Grant
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 14,10 MB
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Providing a clear and thorough review of the active field of organic evolution, the author describes the processes that bring about evolutionary change and the factors that affect these processes. He covers a broad range of subjects, placing classical and recent research in perspective and clarifying current controversies.

Gecco 2002

Author: William B. Langdon
Editor: Morgan Kaufmann Pub
ISBN:
File Size: 29,95 MB
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Agents And Goals In Evolution

Author: Samir Okasha
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198815085
File Size: 10,78 MB
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Samir Okasha offers a philosophical perspective on evolutionary biology in Agents and Goals in Evolution. His focus is on "agential thinking", which is a mode of thought commonly employed in evolutionary biology. The paradigm case of agential thinking involves treating an evolved organism asif it were an agent pursuing a goal, such as survival or reproduction, and treating its phenotypic traits as strategies for achieving that goal, or furthering its biological interests.Agential thinking involves deliberately transposing a set of concepts - goals, interests, strategies - from rational human agents to the biological world more generally. Okasha's enquiry begins by asking whether this is justified. Is agential thinking mere anthropomorphism, or does it play a genuineintellectual role in the science? This central question leads Okasha to a series of further questions. How do we identify the "goal" that evolved organisms will behave as if they are trying to achieve? Can agential thinking ever be applied to groups or genes, rather than to individual organisms? Andhow does agential thinking relate to the controversies over fitness-maximization in evolutionary biology? In the final third of the book, Okasha examines the relation between the adaptive and the rational. If organisms can validly be treated as agent-like, for the purposes of evolutionary analysis, should we expect that their evolved behaviour will correspond to the behaviour of rational agents ascodified in the theory of rational choice? If so, does this mean that the fitness-maximizing paradigm of the evolutionary biologist can be mapped directly to the utility-maximizing paradigm of the rational choice theorist? Okasha explores these questions using an inter-disciplinary methodology thatdraws on philosophy of science, evolutionary biology and economics.