Inequality And Prosperity

Autore: Jonas Pontusson
Editore: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501713779
Grandezza: 15,70 MB
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What are the relative merits of the American and European socioeconomic systems? Long-standing debates have heated up in recent years with the expansion of the European Union and increasingly sharp political and cultural differences between the United States and Europe. In Inequality and Prosperity, Jonas Pontusson provides a comparative overview of the two major models of labor markets and welfare systems in the advanced industrial world: the "liberal capitalist" system of the United States and Britain and the "social market" capitalism of northern Europe. These two models balance concerns of efficiency and equity in fundamentally different ways. In the 1990s the much-heralded forces of globalization (together with demographic changes and attendant political pressures) seemed to threaten the very existence of the social-market economies of Europe. Were the social compacts of Sweden and Germany outmoded? Would varieties of capitalism remain possible, or were labor-market and social-welfare arrangements converging on the U.S. norm? Pontusson opposes the notion of inevitable convergence: he believes that social-market economies can survive and indeed flourish in the contemporary world economy. He bases his argument on an enormous amount of highly specialized research on eighteen countries, using national-level data for the last thirty years. Among the areas he explores are labor-market dynamics, income distribution, employment performance, wage bargaining, firm-level performance, and the changing possibilities for the welfare state.

Australia

Autore: Peter Whiteford
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 49,71 MB
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This paper provides an overview of economic inequality in Australia. It is an extended version of a chapter that will appear in the forthcoming book 'GINI Growing Inequalities' Impacts, Volume 2, Changing Inequalities and Societal Impacts in Rich Countries: Thirty Countries' Experiences'. The paper features background information on Australian institutional arrangements and reviews trends and driving forces in inequality, poverty, disadvantage, debt, and income.

Back To Shared Prosperity The Growing Inequality Of Wealth And Income In America

Autore: Ray Marshall
Editore: Routledge
ISBN: 1317476182
Grandezza: 64,77 MB
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To what extent are major social and political problems caused by basic income and unemployment trends? Is it possible to restore the kind of broadly shared prosperity the U.S. once experienced before the early 1970s? Some of the top economists of our time address these critical questions.

Dreams Of Prosperity

Autore: Silvia Vignato
Editore:
ISBN: 9786162151415
Grandezza: 75,49 MB
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Vista: 5908
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This fresh and unusual collection offers a critical reflection on Southeast Asia as a progressively integrated space of production, exchange, and circulation within and beyond national boundaries. The essays describe the successful or unsuccessful entry of specific individuals or groups into wider markets and networks in their quest for prosperity--in Thailand, by Lua peasant farmers, slum families, the last century's teak laborers, and ethnic tour hosts; in Indonesia, by communities resisting environmental destruction and the urban poor; and in Vietnam, by human trafficking returnees. The authors examine how these groups are socially and symbolically defined and redefined in the process of integration and the sense-making effort that characterizes many destitute people in urban contexts.

Equality For Women Prosperity For All

Autore: Augusto Lopez-Claros
Editore: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1466852046
Grandezza: 22,57 MB
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A groundbreaking book about the direct relationship between a woman's rights and freedoms and the economic prosperity of her country. "The authors speak to hearts as well as minds." —Maud de Boer Buquicchio, UN Special Rapporteur “Not only timely but profoundly important—a must-read." Jackie Jones, Professor of Feminist Legal studies Gender discrimination is often seen from a human rights perspective; it is a violation of women’s basic human rights, as embedded in the Universal Declaration, the UN Charter and other such founding documents. Moreover, there is overwhelming evidence that restrictions and various forms of discrimination against women are also bad economics. They undermine the talent pool available to the private sector, they distort power relationships within the family and lead to inefficiencies in the use of resources. They contribute to create an environment in which women, de facto, are second class citizens, with fewer options than men, lower quality jobs, lower pay, often the victims of various forms of violence, literally from the cradle to the grave. They are also not fully politically empowered and have scant presence in the corridors of power, whether as finance ministers, central bank governors, prime ministers or on the boards of leading corporations. Why is gender inequality so pervasive? Where does it come from? Does it have cultural and religious roots? And what are the sorts of policies and values that will deliver a world in which being born a boy or a girl is no longer a measure of the likelihood of developing one’s human potential?

Poverty And Shared Prosperity 2016

Autore: World Bank Group
Editore: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464809798
Grandezza: 40,10 MB
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Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016 is the first of an annual flagship report that will inform a global audience comprising development practitioners, policy makers, researchers, advocates, and citizens in general with the latest and most accurate estimates on trends in global poverty and shared prosperity. This edition will also document trends in inequality and identify recent country experiences that have been successful in reducing inequalities, provide key lessons from those experiences, and synthesize the rigorous evidence on public policies that can shift inequality in a way that bolsters poverty reduction and shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. Specifically, the report will address the following questions: • What is the latest evidence on the levels and evolution of extreme poverty and shared prosperity? • Which countries and regions have been more successful in terms of progress toward the twin goals and which are lagging behind? • What does the global context of lower economic growth mean for achieving the twin goals? • How can inequality reduction contribute to achieving the twin goals? • What does the evidence show concerning global and between- and within-country inequality trends? • Which interventions and countries have used the most innovative approaches to achieving the twin goals through reductions in inequality? The report will make four main contributions. First, it will present the most recent numbers on poverty, shared prosperity, and inequality. Second, it will stress the importance of inequality reduction in ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity by 2030 in a context of weaker growth. Third, it will highlight the diversity of within-country inequality reduction experiences and will synthesize experiences of successful countries and policies, addressing the roots of inequality without compromising economic growth. In doing so, the report will shatter some myths and sharpen our knowledge of what works in reducing inequalities. Finally, it will also advocate for the need to expand and improve data collection—for example, data availability, comparability, and quality—and rigorous evidence on inequality impacts in order to deliver high-quality poverty and shared prosperity monitoring.

A Political Economy Of The United States China And India

Autore: Shalendra D. Sharma
Editore: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107183588
Grandezza: 47,90 MB
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Vista: 2970
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Examines the widening economic inequality in the United States, China, and India, and what can be done to ameliorate this.

Proposing Prosperity

Autore: Jennifer M. Randles
Editore: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231543174
Grandezza: 53,40 MB
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Vista: 9740
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"Fragile families"—unmarried parents who struggle emotionally and financially—are one of the primary targets of the Healthy Marriage Initiative, a federal policy that has funded marriage education programs in nearly every state. These programs, which encourage marriage by teaching relationship skills, are predicated on the hope that married couples can provide a more emotionally and financially stable home for their children. Healthy marriage policy promotes a pro-marriage culture in which two-parent married families are considered the healthiest. It also assumes that marriage can be a socioeconomic survival mechanism for low-income families, and an engine of upward mobility. Through interviews with couples and her own observations and participation in marriage education courses, Jennifer M. Randles challenges these assumptions and critically examines the effects of such classes on participants. She takes the reader inside healthy marriage classrooms to reveal how their curricula are reflections of broader issues of culture, gender, governance, and social inequality. In analyzing the implementation of healthy marriage policy, Randles questions whether it should target individual behavior or the social and economic context of that behavior. The most valuable approach, she concludes, will not be grounded in notions of middle-class marriage culture. Instead, it will reflect the fundamental premise that love and commitment thrive most within the context of social and economic opportunity.

Fighting Inequality In Nepal

Autore:
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 50,91 MB
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Vista: 5168
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Changing Inequalities And Societal Impacts In Rich Countries

Autore: Brian Nolan
Editore: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199687420
Grandezza: 77,52 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 136
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This book addresses key questions about whether inequality in incomes, wealth, and education have been widening in a consistent fashion across 30 rich nations, and whether this is exacerbating social problems and undermining the healthy functioning of democratic processes.

Sociology Of Spatial Inequality The

Autore: Linda M. Lobao
Editore: SUNY Press
ISBN: 0791479978
Grandezza: 57,83 MB
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Vista: 4164
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A sociological look at the role of space in inequality.

Economic Growth Inequality And Crony Capitalism

Autore: Danilo Rocha Limoeiro
Editore: Routledge
ISBN: 1000088669
Grandezza: 25,27 MB
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Vista: 7520
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Researchers in international development have long argued that the high costs of doing business harms prosperity in developing countries, a claim that invites the question of why governments impose these costs and why societies fail to enact reforms reducing them. This book seeks to answer the question by looking at the case of Brazil, a large and highly unequal economy riddled with state-imposed transaction costs. By delving into the political dynamics underlying a costly business environment, this book provides the reader with novel insights into crony capitalism and inequality. It argues that the root cause of a costly business environment is the collusion between political actors, bureaucrats and business insiders. Politicians and bureaucrats relish their discretion over rules and policies as a power resource, since they can increase or decrease the costs of doing business faced by firms and sectors. Business insiders collude with government agents to access the loopholes that decrease the cost of doing business, thus gaining a competitive edge over outsiders. This gives the insiders weaker preferences for reforms that could decrease the overall cost of doing business. By pursuing their self-interest, these actors create a low-level equilibrium that perpetuates crony capitalism and inequality, to the detriment of overall prosperity. The book makes its case with a sophisticated combination of formal modelling, quantitative analyses and in-depth case studies of tax policy and of the pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors in Brazil. Observers have declared the need for reforms that improve the business environment in developing countries for a long time. However, the findings presented in this book suggests they might have underestimated the challenge ahead. Scholars and policy-makers in international development, business politics and political economy will be interested in the innovative perspective of this book.

Sustainable Prosperity In The New Economy

Autore: William Lazonick
Editore: W.E. Upjohn Institute
ISBN: 0880993510
Grandezza: 47,93 MB
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Vista: 3679
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Lazonick explores the origins of the new era of employment insecurity and income inequality, and considers what governments, businesses, and individuals can do about it. He also asks whether the United States can refashion its high-tech business model to generate stable and equitable economic growth. --from publisher description.

Inequality Beyond Globalization

Autore: Christian Suter
Editore: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 364380072X
Grandezza: 12,71 MB
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Vista: 2446
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This volume debates the complex nature of the relationships between globalization, social and economic transformations and growing inequalities. Employing a global, world-historical and comparative perspective, the 16 articles brought together in this volume deal with three central questions: Firstly, the question of the spatio-temporal evolution and variations of growing inequalities, secondly, the relative importance of globalization as compared to other factors explaining growing inequalities and, thirdly, institutional variations of inequality dynamics and globalization impacts. Christian Suter is Professor of Economic Sociology at the University of NeuchÃ?Â[tel and President of the World Society Foundation, domiciled at the University of Zurich, Switzerland.

The Dark Side Of Prosperity

Autore: Mark Horsley
Editore: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472436598
Grandezza: 49,69 MB
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Vista: 8541
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This book offers a critical analysis of consumer credit markets and the growth of outstanding debt, presenting in-depth interview material to explore the phenomenon of mass indebtedness through the life trajectories of self-identified debtors struggling with the pressures of owing money. A rich and original qualitative study of the close relationship between financial capitalism, consumer aspirations, social exclusion and the proliferation of personal indebtedness, The Dark Side of Prosperity examines questions of social identity, subjectivity and consumer motivation in close connection with the socio-cultural ideals of an ‘enjoyment society’ that binds the value of the lives of individuals to the endless acquisition and disposal of pecuniary resources and lifestyle symbols. Critically engaging with the work of Giddens, Beck and Bauman, this volume draws on the thought of contemporary philosophers including Žižek, Badiou and Rancière to consider the possibility that the expansion of outstanding consumer credit, despite its many consequences, may be integral to the construction of social identity in a radically indeterminate and increasingly divided society. A ground-breaking work of critical social research this book will appeal to scholars of social theory, contemporary philosophy and political and economic sociology, as well as those with interests in consumer credit and cultures of indebtedness.

Reinventing Prosperity

Autore: Graeme Maxton
Editore: Greystone Books
ISBN: 1771642521
Grandezza: 53,54 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 3962
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The biggest challenges facing human wellbeing today are widening income inequality, continuing global poverty, and environmental degradation. Luckily, these problems are simple to solve — in theory. In practice, however, they are much harder to solve, because we are required to come up with solutions that are acceptable to a political majority in the rich world. Most of the commonly proposed “solutions” are simply not acceptable to most people. Many of these proposed solutions — like stopping the use of fossil fuels — require a sacrifice today in order to obtain an uncertain advantage in the far future. Therefore they are politically infeasible in the modern world, which is marked by relatively short term thinking. In Reinventing Prosperity, Graeme Maxton and Jorgen Randers provide a new approach altogether through thirteen recommendations which are both politically acceptable and which can be implemented in the current period of slow economic growth around the world. Reinventing Prosperity solves the forty year old growth/no-growth standoff, by providing a solution to income inequality, continuing global poverty and climate change, a solution that will provide for economic growth but with a declining ecological footprint. Reinventing Prosperity shows us how to live better on our finite planet — and in ways we can agree on.

Prices Poverty And Inequality

Autore: Christian Miguel Broda
Editore: A E I Press
ISBN:
Grandezza: 31,56 MB
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Vista: 3127
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America's health care system faces serious challenges, and only drastic reforms will preserve its strengths while correcting its weaknesses. John F. Cogan, R. Glenn Hubbard, and Daniel P. Kessler propose five key policies to build a better health-care system: (1) health-care tax reform, (2) insurance reform, (3) improvement of health-care information, (4) control of anticompetitive behavior, and (5) malpractice system reform.

Inequality And Inclusive Growth In Rich Countries

Autore: Brian Nolan
Editore: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198807031
Grandezza: 59,50 MB
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Vista: 1382
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This book addresses the central challenge facing rich countries: how to promote growth and prosperity that is widely shared rather than concentrated at the top. It identifies structures and policies that are associated with limiting the rise in inequality and promoting income growth.

Does Economic Inequality Influence The Immigration Of High And Low Skilled Individuals

Autore: Simon Valentin
Editore: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3346022579
Grandezza: 50,19 MB
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Vista: 5805
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Academic Paper from the year 2019 in the subject Sociology - Economy and Industry, grade: 1,0, Hertie School of Governance, language: English, abstract: With having in mind the effect of high- and low-skilled migration for economic prosperity, this study empirically tests with immigration data from 20 countries from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from 1985 to 2010 the effect of inequality in a receiving country on high- and low-skilled migration to this country, so that the research question that this study seeks to answer is: Does economic inequality influence the immigration of high- and low-skilled individuals? In the broad context of the study of economic inequality within societies, one of the most prominent topics is the relationship between inequality and economic prosperity of a country, which is studied by many authors such as Kenworthy (2003) or Wren (2013). With this study, I want to contribute to this research by focusing on one possible mechanism within the inequality-economic prosperity relationship, namely migration. Attracting and retaining highly qualified people is crucial to the development of a knowledge-based economy in which ideas and innovation drive technological and social progress. Moreover, the perception and acceptance of immigration within a society are largely shaped by the skill level of immigrants. Understanding how high-skilled people and in contrast, how low-skilled people choose their country of destination when migrating is, therefore, crucial – for sending and receiving countries alike. Migration and especially cross-border migration is a highly complex topic and the individual decision to migrate is influenced by a multitude of drivers. However, when looking at the differences between high- and low-skilled migrations, economic drivers are especially important, because more than for other drivers such as political or social drivers they affect high- and low-skilled people differently. Assuming that migration is at least partly determined by the desire to realize economic opportunities abroad and assuming that high-skilled migrants should benefit from the opportunities in less equal destination countries, while low-skilled migrants should benefit from a compressed wage distribution in more equal destination countries, a stream of literature, building on Borjas (1987), studies the relationship between inequality in sending and receiving countries and the consequences for high- and low-skilled migration.

Soziale Ungleichheit Im Internationalen Vergleich

Autore: Markus Hadler
Editore: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3825805131
Grandezza: 24,19 MB
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Dieses Buch nähert sich dem Thema soziale Ungleichheit von zwei Seiten: Zum einen werden inhaltliche Aspekte wie die Wahrnehmung von Konflikten oder die Toleranz gegenüber Einkommensungleichheiten diskutiert; zum anderen wird auf die methodische Erfassung mittels Mehrebenen-Analysen eingegangen. Es wird mit Umfragedaten aus rund 40 Ländern gezeigt, dass Einstellungen zur sozialen Ungleichheit sowohl von individuellen Charakteristika als auch von Merkmalen des sozialen Kontextes beeinflusst werden. Markus Hadler ist Privatdozent am Institut für Soziologie der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz.