Drought Stress In Maize Zea Mays L

Autore: Muhammad Aslam
Editore:
ISBN: 9783319254418
Grandezza: 12,61 MB
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This book focuses on early germination, one of maize germplasm most important strategies for adapting to drought-induced stress. Some genotypes have the ability to adapt by either reducing water losses or by increasing water uptake. Drought tolerance is also an adaptive strategy that enables crop plants to maintain their normal physiological processes and deliver higher economical yield despite drought stress. Several processes are involved in conferring drought tolerance in maize: the accumulation of osmolytes or antioxidants, plant growth regulators, stress proteins and water channel proteins, transcription factors and signal transduction pathways. Drought is one of the most detrimental forms of abiotic stress around the world and seriously limits the productivity of agricultural crops. Maize, one of the leading cereal crops in the world, is sensitive to drought stress. Maize harvests are affected by drought stress at different growth stages in different regions. Numerous events in the life of maize crops can be affected by drought stress: germination potential, seedling growth, seedling stand establishment, overall growth and development, pollen and silk development, anthesis silking interval, pollination, and embryo, endosperm and kernel development. Though every maize genotype has the ability to avoid or withstand drought stress, there is a concrete need to improve the level of adaptability to drought stress to address the global issue of food security. The most common biological strategies for improving drought stress resistance include screening available maize germplasm for drought tolerance, conventional breeding strategies, and marker-assisted and genomic-assisted breeding and development of transgenic maize. As a comprehensive understanding of the effects of drought stress, adaptive strategies and potential breeding tools is the prerequisite for any sound breeding plan, this brief addresses these aspects.

Studies Of Drought Tolerance In Maize Zea Mays L

Autore: Thomas C. Kilen
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 51,63 MB
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Vista: 1489
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Drought Tolerance At Seedling And Flowering Growth Stages In Maize

Autore: Stephen Ngure Mugo
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 77,86 MB
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Vista: 375
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Expansion of maize (Zea mays L.) growing into unfavorable areas, driven by increasing food demand, exposes over 60 million hectares in the tropics and subtropics to drought stress at the seedling and flowering growth stages causing about 17% yield losses annually. Breeding for improved drought tolerance will require methodology and techniques to be developed, environments for selection identified, selection criteria determined, and their genetics and effectiveness understood. Studies were undertaken on tropical maize germplasm to identify traits, methodologies, and environments for evaluation and selection, and to understand the gene action involved in control of putative secondary traits [leaf abscisic acid (L-ABA) concentration, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), and leaf senescence] for selection. Under drought at the seedling stage, seedling weight was increased and leaf abscisic acid concentration decreased as indirect responses to selection for drought tolerance at the flowering stage, even though these traits were not part of the index used in that selection. There was no reduction in seedling biomass under well-watered conditions. This gives hope that selection at the flowering stage confers some drought tolerance at the seedling stage. Pre- and post-flowering L-ABA concentrations under drought at the flowering stage were negatively correlated with grain yield (r = -0.67** and r = -0.54*, respectively) and were shown to decrease with cycles of selection for drought tolerance. L-ABA concentration under seedling drought stress is controlled by dominance gene action, while at flowering, both additive and dominance effects were important. Reciprocal recurrent selection or any selection involving tester crossing would be appropriate to reduce ABA concentrations at the seedling stage. Reduction of ABA concentration at the flowering stage could be achieved through either inter- or intra-population improvement procedures. ASI and leaf senescence are controlled by additive gene action, and recurrent selection or pedigree breeding procedures were suggested as suitable approaches for improving tropical maize using these traits. Index selection rather than selection based on individual traits was suggested as an appropriate approach for improvement of maize for drought tolerance considering the additive contributions of the traits studied in drought tolerance at seedling and flowering stages. Other considerations were the correlation coefficients between the putative secondary traits and grain yield and among the secondary traits (L-ABA concentration, leaf rolling, ASI, leaf senescence, and ears per plant). Drought environments are imperative for expression of the putative secondary traits; their expression in non-stress environments is inadequate for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes.

An Investigative Study Of The Drought Tolerance Of F1 Maize Zea Mays L Single Crosses Derived From Pannar And Cimmyt Inbred Lines

Autore: Caiphas Muyambo
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 16,25 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 1177
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Drought Stress Tolerance In Plants Vol 1

Autore: Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Editore: Springer
ISBN: 3319288997
Grandezza: 25,35 MB
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Vista: 8989
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Abiotic stress adversely affects crop production worldwide, decreasing average yields for most of the crops to 50%. Among various abiotic stresses affecting agricultural production, drought stress is considered to be the main source of yield reduction around the globe. Due to an increasing world population, drought stress will lead to a serious food shortage by 2050. The situation may become worse due to predicated global climate change that may multiply the frequency and duration and severity of such abiotic stresses. Hence, there is an urgent need to improve our understanding on complex mechanisms of drought stress tolerance and to develop modern varieties that are more resilient to drought stress. Identification of the potential novel genes responsible for drought tolerance in crop plants will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of crop responses to drought stress. The discovery of novel genes, the analysis of their expression patterns in response to drought stress, and the determination of their potential functions in drought stress adaptation will provide the basis of effective engineering strategies to enhance crop drought stress tolerance. Although the in-depth water stress tolerance mechanisms is still unclear, it can be to some extent explained on the basis of ion homeostasis mediated by stress adaptation effectors, toxic radical scavenging, osmolyte biosynthesis, water transport, and long distance signaling response coordination. Importantly, complete elucidation of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms for drought stress, perception, transduction, and tolerance is still a challenge to the plant biologists. The findings presented in volume 1 call attention to the physiological and biochemical modalities of drought stress that influence crop productivity, whereas volume 2 summarizes our current understanding on the molecular and genetic mechanisms of drought stress resistance in plants.

Agronomic Crops

Autore: Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Editore: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811500258
Grandezza: 11,29 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 802
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Agronomic crops have been a source of foods, beverages, fodders, fuels, medicines and industrial raw materials since the dawn of human civilization. Over time, these crops have come to be cultivated using scientific methods instead of traditional methods. However, in the era of climate change, agronomic crops are increasingly subjected to various environmental stresses, which results in substantial yield loss. To meet the food demands of the ever-increasing global population, new technologies and management practices are being adopted to boost yield and maintain productivity under both normal and adverse conditions. To promote the sustainable production of agronomic crops, scientists are currently exploring a range of approaches, which include varietal development, soil management, nutrient and water management, pest management etc. Researchers have also made remarkable progress in developing stress tolerance in crops through various approaches. However, finding solutions to meet the growing food demands remains a challenge. Although there are several research publications on the above-mentioned problems, there are virtually no comprehensive books addressing all of the recent topics. Accordingly, this book, which covers all aspects of production technologies, management practices, and stress tolerance of agronomic crops in a single source, offers a highly topical guide.

Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

Autore: Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Editore: Springer
ISBN: 3030061183
Grandezza: 17,44 MB
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Vista: 4204
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Plants have to manage a series of environmental stresses throughout their entire lifespan. Among these, abiotic stress is the most detrimental; one that is responsible for nearly 50% of crop yield reduction and appears to be a potential threat to global food security in coming decades. Plant growth and development reduces drastically due to adverse effects of abiotic stresses. It has been estimated that crop can exhibit only 30% of their genetic potentiality under abiotic stress condition. So, this is a fundamental need to understand the stress responses to facilitate breeders to develop stress resistant and stress tolerant cultivars along with good management practices to withstand abiotic stresses. Also, a holistic approach to understanding the molecular and biochemical interactions of plants is important to implement the knowledge of resistance mechanisms under abiotic stresses. Agronomic practices like selecting cultivars that is tolerant to wide range of climatic condition, planting date, irrigation scheduling, fertilizer management could be some of the effective short-term adaptive tools to fight against abiotic stresses. In addition, “system biology” and “omics approaches” in recent studies offer a long-term opportunity at the molecular level in dealing with abiotic stresses. The genetic approach, for example, selection and identification of major conditioning genes by linkage mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL), production of mutant genes and transgenic introduction of novel genes, has imparted some tolerant characteristics in crop varieties from their wild ancestors. Recently research has revealed the interactions between micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and plant stress responses exposed to salinity, freezing stress and dehydration. Accordingly transgenic approaches to generate stress-tolerant plant are one of the most interesting researches to date. This book presents the recent development of agronomic and molecular approaches in conferring plant abiotic stress tolerance in an organized way. The present volume will be of great interest among research students and teaching community, and can also be used as reference material by professional researchers.

Brassinosteroids Plant Growth And Development

Autore: Shamsul Hayat
Editore: Springer
ISBN: 9811360588
Grandezza: 61,68 MB
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Vista: 1760
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The entire range of the developmental process in plants is regulated by a shift in the hormonal concentration, tissue sensitivity and their interaction with the factors operating around the plants. Phytohormones play a crucial role in regulating the direction of plant in a coordinated fashion in association with metabolism that provides energy and the building blocks to generate the form that we recognize as a plant. Out of the recognized hormones, attention has largely been focused on Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene and more recently on Brassinosteroids. In this book we are providing the information about a brassinosteroids that again confirm its status as phytohormones because it has significant impact on various aspects of the plant life and its ubiquitous distribution throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are generating a significant impact on plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport, induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure. This book is not an encyclopedia of reviews but includes a selected collection of newly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of brassinosteroids. The aim of this book is to tell all about brassinosteroids, by the present time. The various chapters incorporate both theoretical and practical aspects and may serve as baseline information for future researches through which significant development is possible. It is intended that this book will be useful to the students, teachers and researchers, both in universities and research institutes, especially in relation to biological and agricultural sciences.

Demand Driven Technologies For Sustainable Maize Production In West And Central Africa

Autore:
Editore: IITA
ISBN: 9789781313059
Grandezza: 57,26 MB
Formato: PDF, Docs
Vista: 1921
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Evolution Of Dry Matter Distribution And Yield Of Maize Zea Mays L As Affected By Water Stress Under Field Conditions

Autore: Eduardo Alberto Narro-Farias
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 21,38 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 1474
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The Growth Of Maize Zea Mays L Under Field Conditions As Affected By Its Water Relations

Autore: Edmundo Acevedo Hinojosa
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 33,95 MB
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Vista: 4541
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An analysis of growth of maize in relation to water in the soil-plant system was conducted in the field at Davis, California. The time course of root and aerial growth, and water uptake was investigated under conditions of a mild prolonged water stress, with emphasis of defining the soil and crop water status, photosynthesis and the generation of the yield and yield components also were studied. Hybrid maize was grown in deep alluvial soil with high mositure holding capacity. Three irrigation treatment were: a) Weekly 5-cm irrigation starting 21 days after planting (I treatment); b) No irrigation (NI treatment); c) Weekly 5-cm irrigation starting 55 days after planting (155 treatment). Shoot growth. NI treatment, compared to I treatment, reduced crop height 6.5% leaf area 11% although leaf y (water potential) generally was only 2 bars lower at midday during vegetative growth. Diunally, leaf elongation rate (in both treatment) was unespectedly fastest in early afternoon when leaf y was near the daily minimum. Leaf (solute potential) changes lagged behind y so high occurred at near minimum y values, and daytime elongation rates (presumably when temperature was not limiting) correlated with - leaf changes were associated with those of oraganic solutes; soluble leaf carbohydrates changes accounted for 40% of fluctuations. Consistently lower leaf elongation rates in NI treatment could m-not be explained by differences alone, however. Root growth water absorption. Water uptake at various soil depth and times (...).

Maize Research For Stress Environments

Autore:
Editore: CIMMYT
ISBN: 9789686923513
Grandezza: 54,70 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 6593
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Role Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Intraradices Schenck Smith Colonization In Drought Tolerance Of Maize Zea Mays L

Autore: Kizhaeral S. Subramanian
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 44,15 MB
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Vista: 2260
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Alternative Farming Systems Biotechnology Drought Stress And Ecological Fertilisation

Autore: Eric Lichtfouse
Editore: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400701861
Grandezza: 44,65 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 9086
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Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for our children. This discipline addresses current issues such as climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, starvation, obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. Novel solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from agronomy, soil science, molecular biology, chemistry, toxicology, ecology, economy, philosophy and social sciences. As actual society issues are now intertwined, sustainable agriculture will bring solutions to build a safer world. This book series analyzes current agricultural issues, and proposes alternative solutions, consequently helping all scientists, decision-makers, professors, farmers and politicians wishing to build safe agriculture, energy and food systems for future generations.

Nitrogen Fixation And Drought Tolerance In Interspecific Phaseolus Hybrids

Autore: Consuelo E. Estevez
Editore: INIAP Archivo Historico
ISBN:
Grandezza: 12,50 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 9768
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Maize Revolution In West And Central Africa

Autore:
Editore: IITA
ISBN: 9789781312007
Grandezza: 72,66 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 530
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The Potential Effects Of Global Climate Change On The United States

Autore:
Editore:
ISBN:
Grandezza: 61,99 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Docs
Vista: 3902
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Reactive Oxygen Species Advances In Research And Application 2013 Edition

Autore:
Editore: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1490104267
Grandezza: 43,45 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 7859
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Reactive Oxygen Species—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Superoxides. The editors have built Reactive Oxygen Species—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Superoxides in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Reactive Oxygen Species—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Advances In Zea Research And Application 2012 Edition

Autore:
Editore: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1481610945
Grandezza: 70,23 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 7691
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Advances in Zea Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Zea in a concise format. The editors have built Advances in Zea Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Zea in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Zea Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.