Logic Sets And The Techniques Of Mathematical Proofs

Author: Brahima Mbodje Ph. D.
Editor: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 1463429673
File Size: 78,71 MB
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As its title indicates, this book is about logic, sets and mathematical proofs. It is a careful, patient and rigorous introduction for readers with very limited mathematical maturity. It teaches the reader not only how to read a mathematical proof, but also how to write one. To achieve this, we carefully lay out all the various proof methods encountered in mathematical discourse, give their logical justifications, and apply them to the study of topics [such as real numbers, relations, functions, sequences, fine sets, infinite sets, countable sets, uncountable sets and transfinite numbers] whose mastery is important for anyone contemplating advanced studies in mathematics. The book is completely self-contained; since the prerequisites for reading it are only a sound background in high school algebra. Though this book is meant to be a companion specifically for senior high school pupils and college undergraduate students, it will also be of immense value to anyone interested in acquiring the tools and way of thinking of the mathematician.

Metamath A Computer Language For Mathematical Proofs

Author: Norman Megill
Editor: Lulu.com
ISBN: 0359702236
File Size: 69,15 MB
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Metamath is a computer language and an associated computer program for archiving, verifying, and studying mathematical proofs. The Metamath language is simple and robust, with an almost total absence of hard-wired syntax, and we believe that it provides about the simplest possible framework that allows essentially all of mathematics to be expressed with absolute rigor. While simple, it is also powerful; the Metamath Proof Explorer (MPE) database has over 23,000 proven theorems and is one of the top systems in the ?Formalizing 100 Theorems? challenge. This book explains the Metamath language and program, with specific emphasis on the fundamentals of the MPE database.

Introduction To Mathematical Proofs

Author: Charles Roberts
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420069563
File Size: 28,94 MB
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Shows How to Read & Write Mathematical Proofs Ideal Foundation for More Advanced Mathematics Courses Introduction to Mathematical Proofs: A Transition facilitates a smooth transition from courses designed to develop computational skills and problem solving abilities to courses that emphasize theorem proving. It helps students develop the skills necessary to write clear, correct, and concise proofs. Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It will prepare them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and geometry.

Mathematical Proofs

Author: Gary Chartrand
Editor: Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN:
File Size: 76,32 MB
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Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, 2/e, prepares students for the more abstract mathematics courses that follow calculus. This text introduces students to proof techniques and writing proofs of their own. As such, it is an introduction to the mathematics enterprise, providing solid introductions to relations, functions, and cardinalities of sets. KEY TOPICS: Communicating Mathematics, Sets, Logic, Direct Proof and Proof by Contrapositive, More on Direct Proof and Proof by Contrapositive, Existence and Proof by Contradiction, Mathematical Induction, Prove or Disprove, Equivalence Relations, Functions, Cardinalities of Sets, Proofs in Number Theory, Proofs in Calculus, Proofs in Group Theory. MARKET: For all readers interested in advanced mathematics and logic.

Understanding Mathematical Proof

Author: John Taylor
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466514914
File Size: 80,59 MB
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The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs.Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techn

An Introduction To Mathematical Proofs

Author: Nicholas A. Loehr
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1000709809
File Size: 20,27 MB
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An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs presents fundamental material on logic, proof methods, set theory, number theory, relations, functions, cardinality, and the real number system. The text uses a methodical, detailed, and highly structured approach to proof techniques and related topics. No prerequisites are needed beyond high-school algebra. New material is presented in small chunks that are easy for beginners to digest. The author offers a friendly style without sacrificing mathematical rigor. Ideas are developed through motivating examples, precise definitions, carefully stated theorems, clear proofs, and a continual review of preceding topics. Features Study aids including section summaries and over 1100 exercises Careful coverage of individual proof-writing skills Proof annotations and structural outlines clarify tricky steps in proofs Thorough treatment of multiple quantifiers and their role in proofs Unified explanation of recursive definitions and induction proofs, with applications to greatest common divisors and prime factorizations About the Author: Nicholas A. Loehr is an associate professor of mathematics at Virginia Technical University. He has taught at College of William and Mary, United States Naval Academy, and University of Pennsylvania. He has won many teaching awards at three different schools. He has published over 50 journal articles. He also authored three other books for CRC Press, including Combinatorics, Second Edition, and Advanced Linear Algebra.

Famous Mathematical Proofs

Author: Edited by Paul F. Kisak
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781519464330
File Size: 23,33 MB
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In mathematics, a proof is a deductive argument for a mathematical statement. In the argument, other previously established statements, such as theorems, can be used. In principle, a proof can be traced back to self-evident or assumed statements, known as axioms. Proofs are examples of deductive reasoning and are distinguished from inductive or empirical arguments; a proof must demonstrate that a statement is always true (occasionally by listing all possible cases and showing that it holds in each), rather than enumerate many confirmatory cases. An unproved proposition that is believed true is known as a conjecture. Proofs employ logic but usually include some amount of natural language which usually admits some ambiguity. In fact, the vast majority of proofs in written mathematics can be considered as applications of rigorous informal logic. Purely formal proofs, written in symbolic language instead of natural language, are considered in proof theory. This book contains 'solutions' to some of the most noteworthy mathematical proofs (QED).

Mathematical Proofs Pearson New International Edition

Author: Gary Chartrand
Editor: Pearson Higher Ed
ISBN: 1292052341
File Size: 51,46 MB
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Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, Third Edition, prepares students for the more abstract mathematics courses that follow calculus. Appropriate for self-study or for use in the classroom, this text introduces students to proof techniques, analyzing proofs, and writing proofs of their own. Written in a clear, conversational style, this book provides a solid introduction to such topics as relations, functions, and cardinalities of sets, as well as the theoretical aspects of fields such as number theory, abstract algebra, and group theory. It is also a great reference text that students can look back to when writing or reading proofs in their more advanced courses.

The Nuts And Bolts Of Proofs

Author: Antonella Cupillari
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080537901
File Size: 49,90 MB
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The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. * The "List of Symbols" has been extended. * Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises. * Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"

Mathematical Proofs

Author: Source Wikipedia
Editor: Booksllc.Net
ISBN: 9781230780481
File Size: 72,98 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 58. Chapters: Back-and-forth method, Bijective proof, Cantor's diagonal argument, Combinatorial proof, Commutative diagram, Conditional proof, Constructive proof, Direct proof, Double counting (proof technique), Elementary proof, Equalization (proof), Law of large numbers, List of incomplete proofs, List of long proofs, List of mathematical proofs, Mathematical fallacy, Mathematical induction, Minimal counterexample, Of the form, Original proof of Godel's completeness theorem, Probabilistically checkable proof, Probabilistic method, Probabilistic proofs of non-probabilistic theorems, Proofs from THE BOOK, Proof by contradiction, Proof by contrapositive, Proof by exhaustion, Proof by infinite descent, Proof by intimidation, Proof of impossibility, Proof sketch for Godel's first incompleteness theorem, Proof without words, Q.E.D., Structural induction, Tombstone (typography), Turing's proof. Excerpt: Turing's proof, is a proof by Alan Turing, first published in January 1937 with the title On Computable Numbers, With an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem. It was the second proof of the assertion (Alonzo Church's proof was first) that some decision problems are "undecidable" there is no single algorithm that infallibly gives a correct YES or NO answer to each instance of the problem. In his own words: ..".what I shall prove is quite different from the well-known results of Godel ... I shall now show that there is no general method which tells whether a given formula U is provable in K ..." (Undecidable p. 145). Turing preceded this proof with two others. The second and third both rely on the first. All rely on his development of type-writer-like "computing machines" that obey a simple set of rules and his subsequent development of a "universal computing machine." In 1905 Jules Richard presented this profound paradox. Alan...

Proof And The Art Of Mathematics

Author: Joel David Hamkins
Editor:
ISBN: 026254220X
File Size: 54,51 MB
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How to write mathematical proofs, shown in fully-worked out examples. This is a companion volume Joel Hamkins's Proof and the Art of Mathematics, providing fully worked-out solutions to all of the odd-numbered exercises as well as a few of the even-numbered exercises. In many cases, the solutions go beyond the exercise question itself to the natural extensions of the ideas, helping readers learn how to approach a mathematical investigation. As Hamkins asks, "Once you have solved a problem, why not push the ideas harder to see what further you can prove with them?" These solutions offer readers examples of how to write a mathematical proofs. The mathematical development of this text follows the main book, with the same chapter topics in the same order, and all theorem and exercise numbers in this text refer to the corresponding statements of the main text.

Math Proofs Demystified

Author: Stan Gibilisco
Editor: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071469923
File Size: 53,82 MB
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Almost every student has to study some sort of mathematical proofs, whether it be in geometry, trigonometry, or with higher-level topics. In addition, mathematical theorems have become an interesting course for many students outside of the mathematical arena, purely for the reasoning and logic that is needed to complete them. Therefore, it is not uncommon to have philosophy and law students grappling with proofs. This book is the perfect resource for demystifying the techniques and principles that govern the mathematical proof area, and is done with the standard “Demystified” level, questions and answers, and accessibility.

Fundamentals Of Mathematical Proof

Author: Charles Matthews
Editor: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781717176707
File Size: 20,68 MB
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This mathematics textbook covers the fundamental ideas used in writing proofs. Proof techniques covered include direct proofs, proofs by contrapositive, proofs by contradiction, proofs in set theory, proofs of existentially or universally quantified predicates, proofs by cases, and mathematical induction. Inductive and deductive reasoning are explored. A straightforward approach is taken throughout. Plenty of examples are included and lots of exercises are provided after each brief exposition on the topics at hand. The text begins with a study of symbolic logic, deductive reasoning, and quantifiers. Inductive reasoning and making conjectures are examined next, and once there are some statements to prove, techniques for proving conditional statements, disjunctions, biconditional statements, and quantified predicates are investigated. Terminology and proof techniques in set theory follow with discussions of the pick-a-point method and the algebra of sets. Cartesian products, equivalence relations, orders, and functions are all incorporated. Particular attention is given to injectivity, surjectivity, and cardinality. The text includes an introduction to topology and abstract algebra, with a comparison of topological properties to algebraic properties. This book can be used by itself for an introduction to proofs course or as a supplemental text for students in proof-based mathematics classes. The contents have been rigorously reviewed and tested by instructors and students in classroom settings.

One Hundred Simple And Exact Mathematical Proofs That The Valencies Of Carbon Are Unequal

Author: Hawksworth Collins
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 68,86 MB
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100 Mathematical Proof

Author: Rowan Garnier
Editor: John Wiley & Son Limited
ISBN:
File Size: 21,70 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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"Proof" has been and remains one of the concepts which characterises mathematics. Covering basic propositional and predicate logic as well as discussing axiom systems and formal proofs, the book seeks to explain what mathematicians understand by proofs and how they are communicated. The authors explore the principle techniques of direct and indirect proof including induction, existence and uniqueness proofs, proof by contradiction, constructive and non-constructive proofs, etc. Many examples from analysis and modern algebra are included. The exceptionally clear style and presentation ensures that the book will be useful and enjoyable to those studying and interested in the notion of mathematical "proof."

Theoremus

Author: L. P. Cruz
Editor: CreateSpace
ISBN: 9781505921458
File Size: 57,87 MB
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This concise textbook will teach mathematics students the art of proving theorems. Using a simple approach, it will provide them the mechanics to solve challenging proof exercises. Students are first taught to be sensitive to fallacious claims so they could form valid assertions. The book shows the proper use of logic and its deduction rules. It is an effective tool for improving students' skills in formulating sound mathematical arguments. What is more is that the student can get all of these in one sitting.

Discrete Mathematics

Author: Rowan Garnier
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439812802
File Size: 20,40 MB
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Taking an approach to the subject that is suitable for a broad readership, Discrete Mathematics: Proofs, Structures, and Applications, Third Edition provides a rigorous yet accessible exposition of discrete mathematics, including the core mathematical foundation of computer science. The approach is comprehensive yet maintains an easy-to-follow progression from the basic mathematical ideas to the more sophisticated concepts examined later in the book. This edition preserves the philosophy of its predecessors while updating and revising some of the content. New to the Third Edition In the expanded first chapter, the text includes a new section on the formal proof of the validity of arguments in propositional logic before moving on to predicate logic. This edition also contains a new chapter on elementary number theory and congruences. This chapter explores groups that arise in modular arithmetic and RSA encryption, a widely used public key encryption scheme that enables practical and secure means of encrypting data. This third edition also offers a detailed solutions manual for qualifying instructors. Exploring the relationship between mathematics and computer science, this text continues to provide a secure grounding in the theory of discrete mathematics and to augment the theoretical foundation with salient applications. It is designed to help readers develop the rigorous logical thinking required to adapt to the demands of the ever-evolving discipline of computer science.

Science Of Learning Mathematical Proofs The An Introductory Course

Author: Elana Reiser
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9811225532
File Size: 24,86 MB
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College students struggle with the switch from thinking of mathematics as a calculation based subject to a problem solving based subject. This book describes how the introduction to proofs course can be taught in a way that gently introduces students to this new way of thinking. This introduction utilizes recent research in neuroscience regarding how the brain learns best. Rather than jumping right into proofs, students are first taught how to change their mindset about learning, how to persevere through difficult problems, how to work successfully in a group, and how to reflect on their learning. With these tools in place, students then learn logic and problem solving as a further foundation.Next various proof techniques such as direct proofs, proof by contraposition, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction are introduced. These proof techniques are introduced using the context of number theory. The last chapter uses Calculus as a way for students to apply the proof techniques they have learned.

Elementary Theory Of Metric Spaces

Author: Robert B. Reisel
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461381886
File Size: 59,13 MB
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Science students have to spend much of their time learning how to do laboratory work, even if they intend to become theoretical, rather than experimental, scientists. It is important that they understand how experiments are performed and what the results mean. In science the validity of ideas is checked by experiments. If a new idea does not work in the laboratory, it must be discarded. If it does work, it is accepted, at least tentatively. In science, therefore, laboratory experiments are the touchstones for the acceptance or rejection of results. Mathematics is different. This is not to say that experiments are not part of the subject. Numerical calculations and the examina tion of special and simplified cases are important in leading mathematicians to make conjectures, but the acceptance of a conjecture as a theorem only comes when a proof has been constructed. In other words, proofs are to mathematics as laboratory experiments are to science. Mathematics students must, therefore, learn to know what constitute valid proofs and how to construct them. How is this done? Like everything else, by doing. Mathematics students must try to prove results and then have their work criticized by experienced mathematicians. They must critically examine proofs, both correct and incorrect ones, and develop an appreciation of good style. They must, of course, start with easy proofs and build to more complicated ones.