## Modal Logics And Philosophy

**Author**: Rod Girle

**Editor:**Routledge

**ISBN:**131749217X

**File Size**: 23,13 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**2237

The first edition, published by Acumen in 2000, became a prescribed textbook on modal logic courses. The second edition has been fully revised in response to readers' suggestions, including two new chapters on conditional logic, which was not covered in the first edition. "Modal Logics and Philosophy" is a fully comprehensive introduction to modal logics and their application suitable for course use. Unlike most modal logic textbooks, which are both forbidding mathematically and short on philosophical discussion, "Modal Logics and Philosophy" places its emphasis firmly on showing how useful modal logic can be as a tool for formal philosophical analysis. In part 1 of the book, the reader is introduced to some standard systems of modal logic and encouraged through a series of exercises to become proficient in manipulating these logics. The emphasis is on possible world semantics for modal logics and the semantic emphasis is carried into the formal method, Jeffrey-style truth-trees. Standard truth-trees are extended in a simple and transparent way to take possible worlds into account. Part 2 systematically explores the applications of modal logic to philosophical issues such as truth, time, processes, knowledge and belief, obligation and permission.

## Modal Logic For Philosophers

**Author**: James W. Garson

**Editor:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**1107512301

**File Size**: 33,78 MB

**Format:**PDF, Docs

**Read:**2332

This book on modal logic is especially designed for philosophy students. It provides an accessible yet technically sound treatment of modal logic and its philosophical applications. Every effort is made to simplify the presentation by using diagrams instead of more complex mathematical apparatus. These and other innovations provide philosophers with easy access to a rich variety of topics in modal logic, including a full coverage of quantified modal logic, non-rigid designators, definite descriptions, and the de-re de-dicto distinction. Discussion of philosophical issues concerning the development of modal logic is woven into the text. The book uses natural deduction systems, which are widely regarded as the easiest to teach and use. It also includes a diagram technique that extends the method of truth trees to modal logic. This provides a foundation for a novel method for showing completeness that is easy to extend to quantifiers. This second edition contains a new chapter on logics of conditionals, an updated and expanded bibliography, and is updated throughout.

## Philosophical Applications Of Modal Logic

**Author**: Lloyd Humberstone

**Editor:**

**ISBN:**9781848901964

**File Size**: 16,97 MB

**Format:**PDF, Mobi

**Read:**4261

This text aims to convey some of the interest and charm of modal logic, and to put a reader new to the subject in a position to have an informed opinion as to its applicability to each of several areas of philosophical concern (belief, knowledge, obligation ...) in which the merits of a modal approach' have been controversial. he main focus, for these purposes, is on normal modal logics, though some attention is given to the non-normal side of the picture.

## Proof Theory Of Modal Logic

**Author**: Heinrich Wansing

**Editor:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**9780792341208

**File Size**: 51,15 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**1676

This volume deals with formal, mechanizable reasoning in modal logics, that is, logics of necessity, possibility, belief, time computations etc. It is therefore of immense interest for various interrelated disciplines such as philosophy, AI, computer science, logic, cognitive science and linguistics. The book consists of 15 original research papers, divided into three parts. The first part contains papers which give a profound description of powerful proof-theoretic methods as applied to the normal modal logic S4. Part II is concerned with a number of generalizations of the standard proof-theoretic formats, while the third part presents new and important results on semantics-based proof systems for modal logic.

## Short Introduction To Modal Logic

**Author**: Grigori Mints

**Editor:**Center for the Study of Language (CSLI)

**ISBN:**9780937073759

**File Size**: 50,59 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**9698

Modal Logic can be characterized as the logic of necessity and possibility, of 'must be' and 'may be'. A Short Introduction to Modal Logic presents both semantic and syntactic features of the subject and illustrates them by detailed analyses of the three best-known modal systems S5, S4 and T. The book concentrates on the logical aspects of the subject and provides philosophical motivations to show the point of the formal work. The coverage is self-contained, including a summary of the necessary aspects of classical logic which it presupposes. A set of exercises is included in the final chapter.

## Modal Logic

**Author**: Brian F. Chellas

**Editor:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**9780521295154

**File Size**: 16,23 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub

**Read:**3361

A textbook, with exercises, on modal logic for readers already acquainted with the elements of formal logic.

## Neighborhood Semantics For Modal Logic

**Author**: Eric Pacuit

**Editor:**Springer

**ISBN:**3319671499

**File Size**: 21,69 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub

**Read:**9885

This book offers a state-of-the-art introduction to the basic techniques and results of neighborhood semantics for modal logic. In addition to presenting the relevant technical background, it highlights both the pitfalls and potential uses of neighborhood models – an interesting class of mathematical structures that were originally introduced to provide a semantics for weak systems of modal logic (the so-called non-normal modal logics). In addition, the book discusses a broad range of topics, including standard modal logic results (i.e., completeness, decidability and definability); bisimulations for neighborhood models and other model-theoretic constructions; comparisons with other semantics for modal logic (e.g., relational models, topological models, plausibility models); neighborhood semantics for first-order modal logic, applications in game theory (coalitional logic and game logic); applications in epistemic logic (logics of evidence and belief); and non-normal modal logics with dynamic modalities. The book can be used as the primary text for seminars on philosophical logic focused on non-normal modal logics; as a supplemental text for courses on modal logic, logic in AI, or philosophical logic (either at the undergraduate or graduate level); or as the primary source for researchers interested in learning about the uses of neighborhood semantics in philosophical logic and game theory.

## A New Introduction To Modal Logic

**Author**: M.J. Cresswell

**Editor:**Routledge

**ISBN:**1134800282

**File Size**: 55,28 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Mobi

**Read:**808

This long-awaited book replaces Hughes and Cresswell's two classic studies of modal logic: An Introduction to Modal Logic and A Companion to Modal Logic. A New Introduction to Modal Logic is an entirely new work, completely re-written by the authors. They have incorporated all the new developments that have taken place since 1968 in both modal propositional logic and modal predicate logic, without sacrificing tha clarity of exposition and approachability that were essential features of their earlier works. The book takes readers from the most basic systems of modal propositional logic right up to systems of modal predicate with identity. It covers both technical developments such as completeness and incompleteness, and finite and infinite models, and their philosophical applications, especially in the area of modal predicate logic.

## Handbook Of Modal Logic

**Author**: Patrick Blackburn

**Editor:**Elsevier

**ISBN:**9780080466668

**File Size**: 53,48 MB

**Format:**PDF, Mobi

**Read:**4761

The Handbook of Modal Logic contains 20 articles, which collectively introduce contemporary modal logic, survey current research, and indicate the way in which the field is developing. The articles survey the field from a wide variety of perspectives: the underling theory is explored in depth, modern computational approaches are treated, and six major applications areas of modal logic (in Mathematics, Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, Game Theory, and Philosophy) are surveyed. The book contains both well-written expository articles, suitable for beginners approaching the subject for the first time, and advanced articles, which will help those already familiar with the field to deepen their expertise. Please visit: http://people.uleth.ca/~woods/RedSeriesPromo_WP/PubSLPR.html - Compact modal logic reference - Computational approaches fully discussed - Contemporary applications of modal logic covered in depth

## Modal Logic

**Author**: Nino B. Cocchiarella

**Editor:**Oxford University Press

**ISBN:**9780199710638

**File Size**: 28,73 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**6239

In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven. Exercises, some of which show independence results, help to develop logical skills. A separate sentential modal logic of logical necessity in logical atomism is also constructed and shown to be complete and decidable. On the first-order level of the logic of logical necessity, the modal thesis of anti-essentialism is valid and every de re sentence is provably equivalent to a de dicto sentence. An elegant extension of the standard sentential modal logics into several first-order modal logics is developed. Both a first-order modal logic for possibilism containing actualism as a proper part as well as a separate modal logic for actualism alone are constructed for a variety of modal systems. Exercises on this level show the connections between modal laws and quantifier logic regarding generalization into, or out of, modal contexts and the conditions required for the necessity of identity and non-identity. Two types of second-order modal logics, one possibilist and the other actualist, are developed based on a distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. The result is a deeper second-order analysis of possibilism and actualism as ontological frameworks. Exercises regarding second-order predicate quantifiers clarify the distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. Modal Logic is ideally suited as a core text for graduate and undergraduate courses in modal logic, and as supplementary reading in courses on mathematical logic, formal ontology, and artificial intelligence.

## First Order Modal Logic

**Author**: M. Fitting

**Editor:**Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**9401152926

**File Size**: 10,33 MB

**Format:**PDF

**Read:**8681

This is a thorough treatment of first-order modal logic. The book covers such issues as quantification, equality (including a treatment of Frege's morning star/evening star puzzle), the notion of existence, non-rigid constants and function symbols, predicate abstraction, the distinction between nonexistence and nondesignation, and definite descriptions, borrowing from both Fregean and Russellian paradigms.

## An Introduction To Non Classical Logic

**Author**: Graham Priest

**Editor:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**9781139469678

**File Size**: 36,29 MB

**Format:**PDF

**Read:**1508

This revised and considerably expanded 2nd edition brings together a wide range of topics, including modal, tense, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant, and fuzzy logics. Part 1, on propositional logic, is the old Introduction, but contains much new material. Part 2 is entirely new, and covers quantification and identity for all the logics in Part 1. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly using devices such as tableau proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates are discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this book an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy. It will also interest people working in mathematics and computer science who wish to know about the area.

## Meaning And Necessity

**Author**: Rudolf Carnap

**Editor:**University of Chicago Press

**ISBN:**9780226093475

**File Size**: 43,73 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**6863

"This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence. . . . The chief virtue of the book is its systematic character. From Frege to Quine most philosophical logicians have restricted themselves by piecemeal and local assaults on the problems involved. The book is marked by a genial tolerance. Carnap sees himself as proposing conventions rather than asserting truths. However he provides plenty of matter for argument."—Anthony Quinton, Hibbert Journal

## Modal Logic As Metaphysics

**Author**: Timothy Williamson

**Editor:**Oxford University Press

**ISBN:**019955207X

**File Size**: 77,54 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub

**Read:**5884

Are there such things as merely possible people, who would have lived if our ancestors had acted differently? Are there future people, who have not yet been conceived? Questions like those raise deep issues about both the nature of being and its logical relations with contingency and change. In Modal Logic as Metaphysics, Timothy Williamson argues for positive answers to those questions on the basis of an integrated approach to the issues, applying thetechnical resources of modal logic to provide structural cores for metaphysical theories. He rejects the search for a metaphysically neutral logic as futile, and proposes higher-order modal logic as a new settingin which to resolve such metaphysical questions scientifically, by the construction of systematic logical theories embodying rival answers and their comparison by normal scientific standards.

## Introductory Modal Logic

**Author**: Kenneth J. Konyndyk

**Editor:**

**ISBN:**9780268011598

**File Size**: 61,64 MB

**Format:**PDF

**Read:**2447

Modal logic, developed as an extension of classical propositional logic and first-order quantification theory, integrates the notions of possibility and necessity and necessary implication. Arguments whose understanding depends on some fundamental knowledge of modal logic have always been important in philosophy of religion, metaphysics, and epistemology. Moreover, modal logic has become increasingly important with the use of the concept of "possible worlds" in these areas. Introductory Modal Logic fills the need for a basic text on modal logic, accessible to students of elementary symbolic logic. Kenneth Konyndyk presents a natural deduction treatment of propositional modal logic and quantified modal logic, historical information about its development, and discussions of the philosophical issues raised by modal logic. Characterized by clear and concrete explanations, appropriate examples, and varied and challenging exercises, Introductory Modal Logic makes both modal logic and the possible-worlds metaphysics readily available to the introductory level student.

## Many Dimensional Modal Logics Theory And Applications

**Author**: A. Kurucz

**Editor:**Elsevier

**ISBN:**9780080535784

**File Size**: 25,84 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub

**Read:**6161

Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects. To study the computational behaviour of many-dimensional modal logics is the main aim of this book. On the one hand, it is concerned with providing a solid mathematical foundation for this discipline, while on the other hand, it shows that many seemingly different applied many-dimensional systems (e.g., multi-agent systems, description logics with epistemic, temporal and dynamic operators, spatio-temporal logics, etc.) fit in perfectly with this theoretical framework, and so their computational behaviour can be analyzed using the developed machinery. We start with concrete examples of applied one- and many-dimensional modal logics such as temporal, epistemic, dynamic, description, spatial logics, and various combinations of these. Then we develop a mathematical theory for handling a spectrum of 'abstract' combinations of modal logics - fusions and products of modal logics, fragments of first-order modal and temporal logics - focusing on three major problems: decidability, axiomatizability, and computational complexity. Besides the standard methods of modal logic, the technical toolkit includes the method of quasimodels, mosaics, tilings, reductions to monadic second-order logic, algebraic logic techniques. Finally, we apply the developed machinery and obtained results to three case studies from the field of knowledge representation and reasoning: temporal epistemic logics for reasoning about multi-agent systems, modalized description logics for dynamic ontologies, and spatio-temporal logics. The genre of the book can be defined as a research monograph. It brings the reader to the front line of current research in the field by showing both recent achievements and directions of future investigations (in particular, multiple open problems). On the other hand, well-known results from modal and first-order logic are formulated without proofs and supplied with references to accessible sources. The intended audience of this book is logicians as well as those researchers who use logic in computer science and artificial intelligence. More specific application areas are, e.g., knowledge representation and reasoning, in particular, terminological, temporal and spatial reasoning, or reasoning about agents. And we also believe that researchers from certain other disciplines, say, temporal and spatial databases or geographical information systems, will benefit from this book as well. Key Features: • Integrated approach to modern modal and temporal logics and their applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Written by internationally leading researchers in the field of pure and applied logic • Combines mathematical theory of modal logic and applications in artificial intelligence and computer science • Numerous open problems for further research • Well illustrated with pictures and tables

## Modal Logic For Open Minds

**Author**: Johan van Benthem

**Editor:**Stanford Univ Center for the Study

**ISBN:**

**File Size**: 78,13 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub

**Read:**5083

In this work, the author provides an introduction to the field of modal logic, outlining its major ideas and emploring the numerous ways in which various academic fields have adopted it.

## The Logic Of Provability

**Author**: George Boolos

**Editor:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**9780521483254

**File Size**: 55,23 MB

**Format:**PDF, Docs

**Read:**184

Boolos, a pre-eminent philosopher of mathematics, investigates the relationship between provability and modal logic.

## Modal Logic

**Author**: Patrick Blackburn

**Editor:**Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:**9780521527149

**File Size**: 73,23 MB

**Format:**PDF, ePub, Docs

**Read:**9371

A 2001 graduate text on modal logic, a field which has caught the attention of computer scientists, economists and computational linguists.

## Philosophy Of Logic

**Author**:

**Editor:**Elsevier

**ISBN:**9780080466637

**File Size**: 73,38 MB

**Format:**PDF

**Read:**3461

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter