Principles Of Brain Evolution

Author: Georg F. Striedter
Editor: Sinauer Associates Incorporated
ISBN: 9780878938209
Size: 12,67 MB
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Aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this textbook describes some of the basic principles affecting brain evolution. The author refers to data from a wide array of vertebrates while minimizing technical jargon. Particular attention has been paid to the ways in which changes in brain structure impact function and behavior. The volume concludes with a discussion on how mammal brains diverged from other brains and how Homo sapiens evolved a very large and special brain.

Brain Waves Through Time

Author: Robert T. DeMoss
Editor: Insight Books
ISBN:
Size: 18,70 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This work takes us on a journey through time and space to explore the age-old question: What makes humans unique? How have we reached our position of preeminence among all living plant and animal life, and what drove our ascent to this commanding place? The answer revolves around the very essence of what makes us distinctly human - our brains. Dr. Robert DeMoss - a gifted writer and respected psychologist - probes the deepest recesses of our brain and the vast stretches of human knowledge to weave a broad tapestry depicting the richness of human thought and behavior. From this broad canvas, he derives 12 principles that can explain the rise of humankind and the evolution of human behavior. For out of this evolution arose the only species that can contemplate on its own future, that can think about the very act of thinking, and that has built mighty civilizations - and destroyed them too.

Brains Through Time

Author: Georg F. Striedter
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195125681
Size: 13,49 MB
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"Much is conserved in vertebrate evolution, but significant changes in the nervous system occurred at the origin of vertebrates and in most of the major vertebrate lineages. This book examines these innovations and relates them to evolutionary changes in other organ systems, animal behavior, and ecological conditions at the time. The resulting perspective clarifies what makes the major vertebrate lineages unique and helps explain their varying degrees of ecological success. One of the book's major conclusions is that vertebrate nervous systems are more diverse than commonly assumed, at least among neurobiologists. Examples of important innovations include not only the emergence of novel brain regions, such as the cerebellum and neocortex, but also major changes in neuronal circuitry and functional organization. A second major conclusion is that many of the apparent similarities in vertebrate nervous systems resulted from convergent evolution, rather than inheritance from a common ancestor. For example, brain size and complexity increased numerous times, in many vertebrate lineages. In conjunction with these changes, olfactory inputs to the telencephalic pallium were reduced in several different lineages, and this reduction was associated with the emergence of pallial regions that process non-olfactory sensory inputs. These conclusions cast doubt on the widely held assumption that all vertebrate nervous systems are built according to a single, common plan. Instead, the book encourages readers to view both species similarities and differences as fundamental to a comprehensive understanding of nervous systems. Evolution; Phylogeny; Neuroscience; Neurobiology; Neuroanatomy; Functional Morphology; Paleoecology; Homology; Endocast; Brain"--

Evolution Of Nervous Systems

Author:
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128040963
Size: 10,90 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

Principles Of Human Evolution

Author: Robert Andrew Foley
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111868799X
Size: 13,25 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Principles of Human Evolution presents an in-depthintroduction to paleoanthropology and the study of human evolution.Focusing on the fundamentals of evolutionary theory and how theseapply to ecological, molecular genetic, paleontological andarcheological approaches to important questions in the field, thistimely textbook will help students gain a perspective on humanevolution in the context of modern biological thinking. The second edition of this successful text features the additionof Robert Foley, a leading researcher in Human EvolutionaryStudies, to the writing team. Strong emphasis on evolutionarytheory, ecology and behavior and scores of new examples reflect thelatest evolutionary theories and recent archaeological finds. Morethan a simple update, the new edition is organized by issue ratherthan chronology, integrating behavior, adaptation and anatomy. Anew design and new figure references make this edition moreaccessible for students and instructors. New author, Robert Foley – leading figure in HumanEvolutionary Studies – joins the writing team. Dedicated website – www.blackwellpublishing.com/lewin– provides study resources and artwork downloadable forPowerpoint presentations. Beyond the Facts boxes – explore key scientific debatesin greater depth. Margin Comments – indicate the key points in eachsection. Key Questions – review and test students’ knowledgeof central chapter concepts and help focus the way a studentapproaches reading the text. New emphasis on ecological and behavioral evolution – inkeeping with modern research. Fully up to date with recent fossil finds and interpretations;integration of genetic and paleoanthropological approaches.

Brain Evolution Language And Psychopathology In Schizophrenia

Author: Paolo Brambilla
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134694423
Size: 11,49 MB
Format: PDF
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This book provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of language processing and related neural networks in schizophrenia by addressing the complex link between psychopathology, language and evolution at different levels of analysis. Psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia are mainly characterized by thought and language disorders, which are strictly intertwined. In particular, language is the distinctive dimension of human beings and is ontologically related to brain development. Although normal at the levels of segmental phonology and morphological organization, the speech of patients suffering from schizophrenia is often characterized by flattened intonation and word-finding difficulties. Furthermore, research suggests that the superior temporal gyrus and specific prefrontal areas which support language in humans are altered in people with schizophrenia. Brambilla and Marini bring together international contributors to explore the link between brain evolution and the psychopathological features of schizophrenia, with a focus on language and its neural underpinnings. Divided into three sections the book covers: • brain evolution and language phylogenesis • brain abnormalities in schizophrenia • psychopathology and schizophrenia. This theoretical approach will appeal to professionals including clinical psychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, neuropsychiatrists, neuropsychologists, neurolinguists, and researchers considering the links between brain evolution, language and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

Evolution And The Emergent Self

Author: Raymond L. Neubauer
Editor: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231521685
Size: 11,55 MB
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Evolution and the Emergent Self is an eloquent and evocative new synthesis that explores how the human species emerged from the cosmic dust. Lucidly presenting ideas about the rise of complexity in our genetic, neuronal, ecological, and ultimately cosmological settings, the author takes readers on a provocative tour of modern science's quest to understand our place in nature and in our universe. Readers fascinated with "Big History" and drawn to examine big ideas will be challenged and enthralled by Raymond L. Neubauer's ambitious narrative. How did humans emerge from the cosmos and the pre-biotic Earth, and what mechanisms of biological, chemical, and physical sciences drove this increasingly complex process? Neubauer presents a view of nature that describes the rising complexity of life in terms of increasing information content, first in genes and then in brains. The evolution of the nervous system expanded the capacity of organisms to store information, making learning possible. In key chapters, the author portrays four species with high brain:body ratios—chimpanzees, elephants, ravens, and dolphins—showing how each species shares with humans the capacity for complex communication, elaborate social relationships, flexible behavior, tool use, and powers of abstraction. A large brain can have a hierarchical arrangement of circuits that facilitates higher levels of abstraction. Neubauer describes this constellation of qualities as an emergent self, arguing that self-awareness is nascent in several species besides humans and that potential human characteristics are embedded in the evolutionary process and have emerged repeatedly in a variety of lineages on our planet. He ultimately demonstrates that human culture is not a unique offshoot of a language-specialized primate, but an analogue of fundamental mechanisms that organisms have used since the beginning of life on Earth to gather and process information in order to buffer themselves from fluctuations in the environment. Neubauer also views these developments in a cosmic setting, detailing open thermodynamic systems that grow more complex as the energy flowing through them increases. Similar processes of increasing complexity can be found in the "self-organizing" structures of both living and nonliving forms. Recent evidence from astronomy indicates that planet formation may be nearly as frequent as star formation. Since life makes use of the elements commonly seeded into space by burning and expiring stars, it is reasonable to speculate that the evolution of life and intelligence that happened on our planet may be found across the universe.

Evolution Of The Brain And Intelligence

Author: Harry Jerison
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323141080
Size: 17,13 MB
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Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence covers the general principles of behavior and brain function. The book is divided into four parts encompassing 17 chapters that emphasize the implications of the history of the brain for the evolution of behavior in vertebrates. The introductory chapter covers the studies of animal behavior and their implications about the nature of the animal’s world. The following chapters emphasize methodological issues and the meanings of brain indices and brain size, as well as the general anatomy of the brain. Other chapters discuss the history of the brain in the major vertebrate groups that were known about 300 million years ago to determine the fate of these early vertebrate groups. Discussions on broad trends in evolution and their implications for the evolution of intelligence are also included. Substantive matter on the brains, bodies, and associated mechanisms of behavior of vertebrates are covered in the remaining chapters of the book, with an emphasis on evolution “above the species level . This book is of value to anthropologists, behavioral scientists, zoologists, paleontologists, and neurosciences students.

Landscape Of The Mind

Author: John F. Hoffecker
Editor: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023151848X
Size: 19,94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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In Landscape of the Mind, John F. Hoffecker explores the origin and growth of the human mind, drawing on archaeology, history, and the fossil record. He suggests that, as an indirect result of bipedal locomotion, early humans developed a feedback relationship among their hands, brains, and tools that evolved into the capacity to externalize thoughts in the form of shaped stone objects. When anatomically modern humans evolved a parallel capacity to externalize thoughts as symbolic language, individual brains within social groups became integrated into a "neocortical Internet," or super-brain, giving birth to the mind. Noting that archaeological traces of symbolism coincide with evidence of the ability to generate novel technology, Hoffecker contends that human creativity, as well as higher order consciousness, is a product of the superbrain. He equates the subsequent growth of the mind with human history, which began in Africa more than 50,000 years ago. As anatomically modern humans spread across the globe, adapting to a variety of climates and habitats, they redesigned themselves technologically and created alternative realities through tools, language, and art. Hoffecker connects the rise of civilization to a hierarchical reorganization of the super-brain, triggered by explosive population growth. Subsequent human history reflects to varying degrees the suppression of the mind's creative powers by the rigid hierarchies of nationstates and empires, constraining the further accumulation of knowledge. The modern world emerged after 1200 from the fragments of the Roman Empire, whose collapse had eliminated a central authority that could thwart innovation. Hoffecker concludes with speculation about the possibility of artificial intelligence and the consequences of a mind liberated from its organic antecedents to exist in an independent, nonbiological form.

The Evolution Of Childhood

Author: Melvin Konner
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674045668
Size: 19,98 MB
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With an eye to the entire range of human evolutionary history, a study of human development examines cross-cultural and universal characteristics of growth from infancy to adolescence.