Robotics In Surgery

Author: Russel A. Faust
Editor: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600213861
File Size: 65,23 MB
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Robotics began as a science fiction creation which has become quite real, first in assembly line operations such as automobile manufacturing, airplane construction etc. They have now reached such areas as the ever-multiplying - medical field. Robotic surgery is now becoming highly practised in open heart, lung, and other forms of surgery. This book covers the developing stages of robotic surgery and its expectations in the medical field.

Transoral Robotic Surgery Tors

Author: Gregory S. Weinstein
Editor: Plural Publishing
ISBN: 1597567000
File Size: 22,14 MB
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Robotic Surgery

Author: Go Watanabe
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 443154853X
File Size: 42,28 MB
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Thanks to the advent of leading-edge technologies, there is a new cross-sectional field of surgery: robotic surgery. Due to the rapid development of robotic surgery systems such as da Vinci, there is a great need to refresh one’s knowledge every day. This book covers all surgical areas: urological surgery, digestive surgery and cardiac surgery in addition to mitral valvular disease. It also summarizes the most current topics in robotic surgery addressed by well-known experts from around the world. These specialists’ expertise provides useful insights into modern educational techniques for the latest trends in surgery—knowledge that will be valuable to students, residents, and experts who are eager to learn more about advanced medical care including da Vinci as a cross-cutting surgical device, even if it lies outside their specialty field.

Simulation In Robotic Surgery A Comparative Review Of Simulators Of The Da Vinci Surgical Robot

Author: Roger D Smith
Editor:
ISBN: 9781938590030
File Size: 79,60 MB
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For every complex and expensive system, there emerges a need for training devices and scenarios that will assist new learners in mastering the use of the device and understanding how to apply it with value. This has proven to be true in aviation, nuclear power control, and medicine among other fields. Laparoscopic surgery simulators have played a valuable role in improving the practice of surgery over the last 20 years and the same trends and values will likely apply in robotic surgery. The complexity, criticality, and cost associated with the effective application of the da Vinci surgical robot have stimulated the commercial creation of simulators which replicate the operations of this robot. Each of these simulators provides a slightly different perspective and solution to the problem. This book explores the characteristics and differences between all of the currently available devices. The details provided here are structured to equip readers with sufficient knowledge about the simulators to make their own decisions about which best meets their needs. Each of them possesses unique traits which make them valuable solutions for different types of users. It is not our intent to make a universal recommendation of one device over the others. Readers should draw their own conclusions based on their unique needs for a device. The three current simulation devices for the da Vinci robot are the: da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical Inc.), dV-Trainer (Mimic Technologies Inc.) and Robotic Surgery Simulator (Simulated Surgical Systems LLC). The three simulators which are described in this book offer a different value proposition to potential purchasers and to novice learners. The da Vinci Skills Simulator, dV-Trainer, an RoSS are complex systems which are significantly less costly than the actual da Vinci robotic surgical system and can be operated at a fraction of the cost of the instruments required for this robot. The intent of this book is to present the characteristics of each system to enable intelligent and informed purchasing and usage decisions.

Robotics In General Surgery

Author: Keith Chae Kim
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461487390
File Size: 42,58 MB
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Robotics in General Surgery provides a comprehensive review of the current applications of the robotic platform in all the general surgery subspecialties. Additionally, for each subspecialty it serves as a procedure-oriented instruction manual in terms of technical details of procedures, including fundamentals of robot positioning and trocar placement, step-by-step description of procedures, comprehensive discussions of advantages, limitations, indications, and relative contraindications of using the robotic approach. The text also discusses the challenges and steps to overcoming these challenges in transitioning from a minimally invasive to a robotic practice/surgeon. Lastly, this volume addresses emerging technology in robotics and the impact that the robotics platform will have on not only practice of surgery, but also in the education of surgeons at all levels. Written by experts in the field of robotic surgery, Robotics in General Surgery is a valuable resource for general surgeons of all levels including residents, fellows and surgeons already in practice.

Perioperative Management In Robotic Surgery

Author: Alan David Kaye
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107143128
File Size: 73,83 MB
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An exhaustive textbook on robot-assisted surgery written for anesthesiologists as well as surgeons.

Surgical Robotics

Author: Serdar Küçük
Editor: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535137190
File Size: 22,35 MB
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Robotic technology has increasingly been preferred by the medical professionals since they have been used for several clinical applications. Medical robots are preferred since they present better results compared to traditional methods such as smaller incision, higher accuracy, and lesser recovery time. Medical robots can be divided into three progressive generations. The first-generation robots were originally industrial robots that had been modified for performing medical applications in orthopedics, neurosurgery, radiology, and radiotherapy in the 1980s. The second-generation robots have been especially developed for executing surgical operations in the 1990s. After the 2000s, the third-generation medical robots have been designed for performing difficult surgical and medical operations. From the first approved surgical robot AESOP to the current da Vinci Surgical System, there have been several different kinds of surgical robots produced until now. Although the history of surgical robots is very short compared to the history of surgery, thousands of surgical robots have been installed in hospitals worldwide, and hundreds of thousands of people have been treated by these surgical robots. Nowadays, the achievements of the surgical robotics amaze both medical professionals and the patients. It is noteworthy to follow up on the evolution of surgical robotics in the future.

Robotic Head And Neck Surgery

Author: Jeffery Scott Magnuson
Editor: Thieme
ISBN: 160406921X
File Size: 28,12 MB
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Head and neck surgery for benign and malignant disease is undergoing a groundbreaking transformation. Robot-assisted surgery is quickly being recognized as a significant innovation, demonstrating the potential to change treatment paradigms for head and neck disease. State-of-the-art robotics enables surgeons to access complex anatomy using a more minimally invasive approach, with the potential to improve patient outcome and reduce surgical morbidity. Learn from international clinicians who have pioneered new paths in the application of robotic-assisted surgery. Throughout the 16 chapters of this book, the authors provide comprehensive discussion of robotic surgical procedures for diseases affecting the oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, thyroid, neck, and skull base. Key Features: Fundamental training and education—from ethical considerations and room set-up—to avoiding complications and clinical pearls Ten videos on the treatment of squamous and spindle cell carcinomas 150 superb illustrations enhance the didactic text Although further innovations and refinement of this technology will be forthcoming, the current state of robotic surgery encompassed in these pages lays a foundation for today and inspiration for tomorrow’s advancements. The book is an invaluable resource for surgeons and residents interested in learning about and incorporating surgical robotics into otolaryngology practice, and will also benefit medical and radiation oncologists.

Urologic Robotic Surgery In Clinical Practice

Author: Prokar Dasgupta
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781848002432
File Size: 51,84 MB
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Robotics is one of the hottest topics in medicine today, with an international interest that is exponentially growing. The introduction of robotic technology into modern operating theatres has provoked a revolutionary change in the basic surgical approach, with many advantages over traditional open surgical treatment, including faster recovery and a significantly lower risk of surgical trauma. While the benefits of minimally invasive surgery are apparent, the expansion of laparoscopic surgery throughout the field has been relatively slow due to the steep learning curve and the level of practice and specialism required to perform such procedures. Although revolutionary upon conception, standard laparoscopy involves the surgeon working from monitors with no depth perception and also with a surgical motion that is counter-intuitive. The introduction of robotic technology however, has surpassed the traditional laparoscopic approach by providing full three dimensional vision, intuitive motion and wristed instrumentation with motion scaling. These dramatic innovations have broadened the scope of surgeons that can now perform complex laparoscopy, and while still in its infancy, robotic assisted surgery has begun to infiltrate all fields of surgery. However, while the practical adoption of the techniques and procedures has increased over the last 5 years, the educational resources have not, leaving the only available learning tools as videos, case observation and proctorships. There is therefore a severe market void for such a publication as this, with steadily growing sales around the world of robotic surgical systems. A compact book, overseen by such a respected figure and featuring contributions from the field leaders, is sure to be very successful within the next few years.

Robotics In Urologic Surgery

Author: Joseph A. Smith
Editor: Saunders
ISBN:
File Size: 22,92 MB
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This new reference is devoted to the exploding area of robotic-assisted urologic surgery. It covers setting up robotics and instrumentation, as well as adapting laparoscopic equipment to this exciting new technology. It also guides you through a full range of robotic procedures including prostatectomy, which is experiencing significant success and patient satisfaction by using robotic technology, as well as nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, vasovasostomy, and pediatric procedures. Full color illustrations help familiarize you with the latest surgical techniques and instrumentation. Learn about the indications for robotic urologic surgery and the potential improvements in patient outcomes. Covers all urologic procedures that are adaptable to robotic technology with chapters on cystectomy, nephrectomy, prostatectomy, vasovasostomy, and adrenalectomy. Offers full color images of procedures to enhance surgical concepts.

Robotics And Surgical Applications

Author: Susan Daenke
Editor:
ISBN: 9781679252778
File Size: 47,65 MB
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Surgical robots are evolving, with newer systems incorporating teleoperation, virtual reality training, and more procedures. These miniaturized surgical robotic instruments fit through a series of quarter-inch incisions unlike the large incisions of man-held surgery. This book enlightens the application of robots in surgery. The ultimate aim of this book is to provide the surgeon with unprecedented control in a minimally invasive environment.

Computer And Robotic Assisted Hip And Knee Surgery

Author: Anthony DiGioia
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198509431
File Size: 76,34 MB
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The techniques of computer and robotic assisted surgery are making a major impact on the practice of orthopaedics. This book provides a complete overview of the technical and clinical aspects of computer-assisted surgery with extensive coverage of the use of robotic and navigation technologies in the surgical setting. The first part of the book presents the clinical problems and describes the basic technological components. The second part of the book describes specific applications in hip and knee reconstructive surgery.

Simulation Training In Laparoscopy And Robotic Surgery

Author: Hitendra R.H. Patel
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 144712930X
File Size: 36,27 MB
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The field of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has now taken centre stage in modern clinical practice. With ever changing technologies in the field of MIS, such as robotics, there is now the need to train the surgeon to the next degree. Training by simulation, whether virtual, hybrid, or real, allows the surgeon to rehearse, learn, improve or maintain their skills in a safe and stress free environment. Simulation Training in Laparoscopy and Robotic Surgery gives a true insight into the latest educational and learning techniques for new technologies in surgery. Written by an international team of experts, this illustrated text provides advice on specialised team training, non technical skills and simulation. Simulation Training in Laparoscopy and Robotic Surgery is an important training aide for surgeons and residents interested in developing skills in this field.

Surgical Robotics

Author: Jacob Rosen
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441911261
File Size: 27,48 MB
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Surgical robotics is a rapidly evolving field. With roots in academic research, surgical robotic systems are now clinically used across a wide spectrum of surgical procedures. Surgical Robotics: Systems Applications and Visions provides a comprehensive view of the field both from the research and clinical perspectives. This volume takes a look at surgical robotics from four different perspectives, addressing vision, systems, engineering development and clinical applications of these technologies. The book also: -Discusses specific surgical applications of robotics that have already been deployed in operating rooms -Covers specific engineering breakthroughs that have occurred in surgical robotics -Details surgical robotic applications in specific disciplines of surgery including orthopedics, urology, cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, pediatric surgery and general surgery Surgical Robotics: Systems Applications and Visions is an ideal volume for researchers and engineers working in biomedical engineering.

Clinical And Financial Implications Of Robotically Assisted Surgery

Author: Jeremie Abitbol
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 72,39 MB
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"The use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in gynecologic oncology has been limited despite an exponential growth in some other specialties. Technological advances in the field of robotics may facilitate the application of MIS, thereby allowing more patients to benefit from the less invasive procedure. Despite the rising popularity of robotic surgery, questions remain as to its clinical and cost-effectiveness, contributing to resistance to changes in clinical practice and thus impeding its growth.The objective of the current thesis was to evaluate the clinical and financial outcomes, from the perspective of patients and of the hospital, following the introduction of a robotic surgery program in gynecologic oncology.Where applicable, data was retrieved from electronic health records, hospital information systems, and a series of retrospective and prospectively managed databases in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at a tertiary center in Canada. Patient-level data included baseline characteristics, diagnostic information, operative outcomes, clinical outcomes, self-reported questionnaires, and resource use. All studies were approved by the institution's internal review board.The use of robotics in gynecologic oncology was found to result in a relatively rapid return to preoperative quality of life and patient-rated pain. Compared to open surgery, patients who underwent robotic surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer used significantly less analgesics, including less opioids and a diminished use of patient-controlled analgesia, and this was associated with a decrease in direct costs for the hospital. In ovarian cancer, where the use of robotics is rare, the approach was found to be feasible, improved perioperative results while maintaining oncologic outcomes, and was, on average, less expensive than open surgery. From the perspective of the hospital, the use of robotics largely replaced the use of open surgery, was found to decrease resource utilization and increase turnover on the inpatient ward, and was associated with a return on investment in the current setting.The use of robotics in gynecologic oncology continues to expand. Insofar as its use in the setting examined, the current thesis demonstrates the clinical benefits of the procedure, the ability to achieve operational efficiencies and cost savings, and the potential to be a valuable investment in a high-volume center. The conceivable areas of innovation envisioned with such a technological platform are explored." --

Robotic Surgery

Author: Farid Gharagozloo
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 9783030535933
File Size: 50,82 MB
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The first edition of Robotic Surgery was written only a decade after the introduction of robotic technology. It was the first comprehensive robotic surgery reference and represented the early pioneering look ahead to the future of surgery. Building upon its success, this successor edition serves as a complete multi-specialty sourcebook for robotic surgery. It seeks to explore an in-depth look into surgical robotics and remote technologies leading to the goal of achieving the benefits of traditional surgery with the least disruption to the normal functions of the human body. Written by experts in the field, chapters cover the fundamental principles of robotic surgery and provide clear instruction on their clinical application and long term results. Most notably, one chapter on “The Blueprint for the Establishment of a Successful Robotic Surgery Program: Lessons from Admiral Hymen R. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy” outlines the many valuable lessons from the transformative change which was brought about by the introduction of nuclear technology into the conventional navy with Safety as the singular goal of the change process. Robotics represents a monumental triumph of surgical technology. Undoubtedly, the safety of the patient will be the ultimate determinant of its success. The second edition of Robotic Surgery aims to erase the artificial boundaries of specialization based on regional anatomy and serves as a comprehensive multispecialty reference for all robot surgeons. It allows them to contemplate crossing boundaries which are historically defined by traditional open surgery.

Encyclopedia Of Medical Robotics

Author: Rajni V. Patel
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813232242
File Size: 11,47 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Medical Robotics combines contributions in four distinct areas of Medical robotics, namely: Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics, Micro and Nano Robotics in Medicine, Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions, and Rehabilitation Robotics. The volume on Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics focuses on robotic technologies geared towards challenges and opportunities in minimally invasive surgery and the research, design, implementation and clinical use of minimally invasive robotic systems. The volume on Micro and Nano robotics in Medicine is dedicated to research activities in an area of emerging interdisciplinary technology that is raising new scientific challenges and promising revolutionary advancement in applications such as medicine and biology. The size and range of these systems are at or below the micrometer scale and comprise assemblies of micro and nanoscale components. The volume on Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions focuses primarily on the use of image guidance during surgical procedures and the challenges posed by various imaging environments and how they related to the design and development of robotic systems as well as their clinical applications. This volume also has significant contributions from the clinical viewpoint on some of the challenges in the domain of image-guided interventions. Finally, the volume on Rehabilitation Robotics is dedicated to the state-of-the-art of an emerging interdisciplinary field where robotics, sensors, and feedback are used in novel ways to re-learn, improve, or restore functional movements in humans. Volume 1, Minimally Invasive Surgical Robotics, focuses on an area of robotic applications that was established in the late 1990s, after the first robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgical procedure. This area has since received significant attention from industry and researchers. The teleoperated and ergonomic features of these robotic systems for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been able to reduce or eliminate most of the drawbacks of conventional (laparoscopic) MIS. Robotics-assisted MIS procedures have been conducted on over 3 million patients to date — primarily in the areas of urology, gynecology and general surgery using the FDA approved da Vinci® surgical system. The significant commercial and clinical success of the da Vinci® system has resulted in substantial research activity in recent years to reduce invasiveness, increase dexterity, provide additional features such as image guidance and haptic feedback, reduce size and cost, increase portability, and address specific clinical procedures. The area of robotic MIS is therefore in a state of rapid growth fueled by new developments in technologies such as continuum robotics, smart materials, sensing and actuation, and haptics and teleoperation. An important need arising from the incorporation of robotic technology for surgery is that of training in the appropriate use of the technology, and in the assessment of acquired skills. This volume covers the topics mentioned above in four sections. The first section gives an overview of the evolution and current state the da Vinci® system and clinical perspectives from three groups who use it on a regular basis. The second focuses on the research, and describes a number of new developments in surgical robotics that are likely to be the basis for the next generation of robotic MIS systems. The third deals with two important aspects of surgical robotic systems — teleoperation and haptics (the sense of touch). Technology for implementing the latter in a clinical setting is still very much at the research stage. The fourth section focuses on surgical training and skills assessment necessitated by the novelty and complexity of the technologies involved and the need to provide reliable and efficient training and objective assessment in the use of robotic MIS systems. In Volume 2, Micro and Nano Robotics in Medicine, a brief historical overview of the field of medical nanorobotics as well as the state-of-the-art in the field is presented in the introductory chapter. It covers the various types of nanorobotic systems, their applications and future directions in this field. The volume is divided into three themes related to medical applications. The first theme describes the main challenges of microrobotic design for propulsion in vascular media. Such nanoscale robotic agents are envisioned to revolutionize medicine by enabling minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. To be useful, nanorobots must be operated in complex biological fluids and tissues, which are often difficult to penetrate. In this section, a collection of four papers review the potential medical applications of motile nanorobots, catalytic-based propelling agents, biologically-inspired microrobots and nanoscale bacteria-enabled autonomous drug delivery systems. The second theme relates to the use of micro and nanorobots inside the body for drug-delivery and surgical applications. A collection of six chapters is presented in this segment. The first chapter reviews the different robot structures for three different types of surgery, namely laparoscopy, catheterization, and ophthalmic surgery. It highlights the progress of surgical microrobotics toward intracorporeally navigated mechanisms for ultra-minimally invasive interventions. Then, the design of different magnetic actuation platforms used in micro and nanorobotics are described. An overview of magnetic actuation-based control methods for microrobots, with eventually biomedical applications, is also covered in this segment. The third theme discusses the various nanomanipulation strategies that are currently used in biomedicine for cell characterization, injection, fusion and engineering. In-vitro (3D) cell culture has received increasing attention since it has been discovered to provide a better simulation environment of in-vivo cell growth. Nowadays, the rapid progress of robotic technology paves a new path for the highly controllable and flexible 3D cell assembly. One chapter in this segment discusses the applications of micro-nano robotic techniques for 3D cell culture using engineering approaches. Because cell fusion is important in numerous biological events and applications, such as tissue regeneration and cell reprogramming, a chapter on robotic-tweezers cell manipulation system to achieve precise laser-induced cell fusion using optical trapping has been included in this volume. Finally, the segment ends with a chapter on the use of novel MEMS-based characterization of micro-scale tissues instead of mechanical characterization for cell lines studies. Volume 3, Image-guided Surgical Procedures and Interventions, focuses on several aspects ranging from understanding the challenges and opportunities in this domain, to imaging technologies, to image-guided robotic systems for clinical applications. The volume includes several contributions in the area of imaging in the areas of X-Ray fluoroscopy, CT, PET, MR Imaging, Ultrasound imaging, and optical coherence tomography. Ultrasound-based diagnostics and therapeutics as well as ultrasound-guided planning and navigation are also included in this volume in addition to multi-modal imaging techniques and its applications to surgery and various interventions. The application of multi-modal imaging and fusion in the area of prostate biopsy is also covered. Imaging modality compatible robotic systems, sensors and actuator technologies for use in the MRI environment are also included in this work., as is the development of the framework incorporating image-guided modeling for surgery and intervention. Finally, there are several chapters in the clinical applications domain covering cochlear implant surgery, neurosurgery, breast biopsy, prostate cancer treatment, endovascular interventions, neurovascular interventions, robotic capsule endoscopy, and MRI-guided neurosurgical procedures and interventions. Volume 4, Rehabilitation Robotics, is dedicated to the state-of-the-art of an emerging interdisciplinary field where robotics, sensors, and feedback are used in novel ways to relearn, improve, or restore functional movements in humans. This volume attempts to cover a number of topics relevant to the field. The first section addresses an important activity in our daily lives: walking, where the neuromuscular system orchestrates the gait, posture, and balance. Conditions such as stroke, vestibular deficits, or old age impair this important activity. Three chapters on robotic training, gait rehabilitation, and cooperative orthoses describe the current works in the field to address this issue. The second section covers the significant advances in and novel designs of soft actuators and wearable systems that have emerged in the area of prosthetic lower limbs and ankles in recent years, which offer potential for both rehabilitation and human augmentation. These are described in two chapters. The next section addresses an important emphasis in the field of medicine today that strives to bring rehabilitation out from the clinic into the home environment, so that these medical aids are more readily available to users. The current state-of-the-art in this field is described in a chapter. The last section focuses on rehab devices for the pediatric population. Their impairments are life-long and rehabilitation robotics can have an even bigger impact during their lifespan. In recent years, a number of new developments have been made to promote mobility, socialization, and rehabilitation among the very young: the infants and toddlers. These aspects are summarized in two chapters of this volume.

Atlas Of Single Port Laparoscopic And Robotic Surgery

Author: Pedro F. Escobar
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 146146840X
File Size: 17,50 MB
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Minimally invasive surgery has become the standard treatment for many diseases and conditions. In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic approaches have improved patients’ quality of life if compared with standard open procedures. Atlas of Single-Port, Laparoscopic, and Robotic Surgery serves as a guide in single-port, standard laparoscopy, and robotic surgery and shows how novel techniques, such as single-port laparoscopy and robotics, have recently evolved. The atlas illustrates the unique challenges that the new single-port surgery modality presents, including instruments crowding and articulation, and the advanced laparoscopic skills required to perform these procedures, such as the ability to move and control a flexible camera. It also illustrates how to efficiently and safely utilize the robot to perform most gynecologic procedures. This exceptional resource provides students, residents, fellows, operating room personnel, and practicing gynecologic surgeons with invaluable information about instrumentation, surgical technique, port systems, and the current research and development in robotics.

Essentials Of Robotic Surgery

Author: Matthew Kroh
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319095641
File Size: 44,58 MB
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Essentials of Robotic Surgery is designed to present a comprehensive and state-of-the-art approach to robotic surgery within the broad confines of general surgery. Sections address preliminary issues faced by surgeons who may be initially undertaking robotics. These areas include training, basic techniques and setup, as well as general troubleshooting. Subsequent chapters focus on specific disease processes and the robotic applications for those procedures. Written by experts in the field, each of these sections addresses patient selection, preoperative considerations, technical conduct of the most common operations, and avoiding complications. A brief review of the existing literature addressing the particular topic follows in each section. The text concludes with chapters on other robotic platforms beyond the only current FDA approved device (Intuitive Surgical) as well as future directions, including single-site, enhanced imaging, 3-D modeling, and tele-proctoring, including to and distant site surgery. Extensive illustrations and links to video make this an interactive text that will be of great value to general surgeons and associated sub-specialists, trainees including residents and fellows, fully trained surgeons looking to start a robotic surgery practice, and experienced robotic surgeons looking to expand the types of procedures that they currently perform robotically.

The Route To Patient Safety In Robotic Surgery

Author: Lorenzo Grespan
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030030202
File Size: 57,98 MB
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The introduction of a new technology in a consolidated field has the potential to disrupt usual practices and create a fertile ground for errors. An example is robotic surgery that is now used in most surgical specialties, pushed by technology developers and enthusiastic surgeons. To analyze the potential impact of robotic surgery on patient safety, a consortium of major European Universities started the project SAFROS whose findings are summarized and further elaborated in the three parts of this book. Part one describes safety in complex systems such as surgery, how this may disrupt the traditional surgical workflow, how safety can be monitored, and the research questions that must be posed. Part two of the book describes the main findings of this research, by identifying the risks of robotic surgery and by describing where its ancillary technologies may fail. This part addresses features and evaluation of anatomic imaging and modeling, actions in the operating room, robot monitoring and control, operator interface, and surgical training. Part three of the book draws the conclusions and offers suggestions on how to limit the risks of medical errors. One possible approach is to use automation to monitor and execute parts of an intervention, thus suggesting that robotics and artificial intelligence will be major elements of the operating room of the future.