Sexual Violence As A Weapon Of War

Author: Maria Eriksson Baaz
Editor: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 178032166X
Size: 18,67 MB
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All too often in conflict situations, rape is referred to as a 'weapon of war', a term presented as self-explanatory through its implied storyline of gender and warring. In this provocative but much-needed book, Eriksson Baaz and Stern challenge the dominant understandings of sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings. Reading with and against feminist analyses of the interconnections between gender, warring, violence and militarization, the authors address many of the thorny issues inherent in the arrival of sexual violence on the global security agenda. Based on original fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as research material from other conflict zones, Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War? challenges the recent prominence given to sexual violence, bravely highlighting various problems with isolating sexual violence from other violence in war. A much-anticipated book by two acknowledged experts in the field, on an issue that has become an increasingly important security, legal and gender topic.

Sexual Violence As A Weapon Of War In Sub Saharan African Conflicts

Author: Nicola Weston
Editor: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 364091533X
Size: 16,44 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Research Paper from the year 2010 in the subject Sociology - Gender Studies, grade: A, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (-), course: Diploma in Tropical Nursing, language: English, abstract: Gender based violence (GBV) is a complex, multidimensional problem which the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2005) describes as a 'universal phenomenon'. So much so, that GBV is recognised as a serious human rights and public health problem that concerns all members of society, (Murray and Lopez, 1996, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 2005). Subsequently, GBV has been incorporated into the Millennium Development Goals, where reducing GBV will have a direct effect on achieving Goal three; the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. This issue has gained international attention, as a direct result of civil conflicts in Bosnia and Rwanda, where human rights abuses were seen violated on a magnitude never before recorded and described as acts of genocide, (United Nations Security Council, UNSC, 1999). In Rwanda, it is thought that about 500,000 women were raped by Hutu militia, (Human Rights Watch, 1996). Further atrocities have been documented in Sierra Leone, where approximately 50,000 to 64,000 internally displaced women have reported war-related sexual assaults (Physicians for Human Rights, 2002). In Kenya, following the disputed presidential elections in 2008, violence erupted which saw acts of sexual violence (SV), such as, gang rape and mutilation. United Nations (UN, 2007) reports suggest that 27, 000 rapes occurred in one region of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 2007. SV has been predominant in many other conflicts such as in Uganda (Giller et al, 1991) and Sudan (Amnesty International, 2004). Research on this area tends to use the terms GBV and SV interchangeably and cannot be explored fully in this paper. There is limited research focusing on violence against males, and therefore this paper will concentrate on SV against women speci

Wartime Sexual Violence

Author: Kerry F. Crawford
Editor: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626164665
Size: 19,43 MB
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In armed conflict, systematic sexual violence is used all too frequently as a strategic weapon to terrorize an opponent's communities. Wartime sexual violence has transitioned rapidly from a neglected human rights issue to an unambiguous security concern on the agendas of powerful states and the United Nations Security Council. What has caused this transition, and what are its impacts? Kerry F. Crawford investigates through interviews and primary-source evidence the political impetuses for this change and the results of the securitization of sexual violence. Crawford explains how change started in the 1990s with the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and then accelerated in the 2000s. Three case studies--the United States' response to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1820 in 2008, and the development of the United Kingdom's Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict Initiative--illustrate that use of the weapon of war frame does not represent pure cooptation by the security sector. Rather, well-placed advocates have used the frame to push the anti-sexual violence agenda while simultaneously working to move beyond the frame's constraints.

Rape Loot Pillage

Author: Sara Meger
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190277661
Size: 17,47 MB
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The securitization of sexual violence -- Toward a feminist political economy of sexual violence in war -- A preliminary typology of wartime sexual violence -- Sexual violence as an instrument of terror/torture -- Sexual violence as a weapon of war -- Sexual violence as an element of genocide -- The political economy of sexual violence in the DRC -- Sexual violence against men and boys in armed conflict -- From fetishization to politicization and gendered peace

Sexual Violence And Effective Redress For Victims In Post Conflict Situations Emerging Research And Opportunities

Author: Sikulibo, Jean de Dieu
Editor: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522581952
Size: 18,32 MB
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All too often in situations of armed conflicts, rape and other acts of sexual violence are used as military tactics. The use of sexual violence as a strategy of war is distinctively destructive and not only leaves victims with significant psychological scars but also tears apart the fabric of families and affected communities. Sexual Violence and Effective Redress for Victims in Post-Conflict Situations: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a collection of innovative research that analyzes these crimes and their implications for the needs of victims in post-conflict justice processes and how these needs can be effectively addressed in order to support the affected community. To conduct this analysis, it explores the distinct aspects of these crimes to understand the nature and extent of the social challenges and damage facing the victim, and examines the challenges and limitations of international criminal justice in dealing with a wide range of victim needs. While highlighting topics including judicial accountability, victims’ rights, and criminal justice, this book is ideally designed for psychologists, therapists, government officials, academicians, policymakers, and researchers.

Gender Violence In Peace And War

Author: Victoria Sanford
Editor: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813576202
Size: 18,82 MB
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Reports from war zones often note the obscene victimization of women, who are frequently raped, tortured, beaten, and pressed into sexual servitude. Yet this reign of terror against women not only occurs during exceptional moments of social collapse, but during peacetime too. As this powerful book argues, violence against women should be understood as a systemic problem—one for which the state must be held accountable. The twelve essays in Gender Violence in Peace and War present a continuum of cases where the state enables violence against women—from state-sponsored torture to lax prosecution of sexual assault. Some contributors uncover buried histories of state violence against women throughout the twentieth century, in locations as diverse as Ireland, Indonesia, and Guatemala. Others spotlight ongoing struggles to define the state’s role in preventing gendered violence, from domestic abuse policies in the Russian Federation to anti-trafficking laws in the United States. Bringing together cutting-edge research from political science, history, gender studies, anthropology, and legal studies, this collection offers a comparative analysis of how the state facilitates, legitimates, and perpetuates gender violence worldwide. The contributors also offer vital insights into how states might adequately protect women’s rights in peacetime, as well as how to intervene when a state declares war on its female citizens.

The War Within The War

Author: Joanne Csete
Editor: Human Rights Watch
ISBN: 9781564322760
Size: 16,84 MB
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To the United Nations

Investigating Sexual And Gender Based Violence As A Weapon Of War And A Tool Of Genocide Against Indigenous Yazidi Women And Girls By Isis In Iraq

Author: Suha Hazeem Hassen
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 14,72 MB
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In the current armed conflicts that have become known to the international community since the sweeping attacks on northern Iraq on Aug. 3, 2014, the Islamic State (ISIS) perpetrated extreme forms of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) against a small ancient ethno-religious conservative Yazidi group. ISIS has used SGBV against Yazidi women and girls as an integral part of their military strategy, as a weapon of war, and as a tool of ethnic cleansing and genocide. ISIS employed SGBV as a cheap weapon of war that can achieve many strategic goals at the same time. Thus, ISIS used multiple forms of SGBV such as torture, abduction, slavery, systemic rape and other heinous crimes against the Yazidi women and their families. These crimes included the massacre of men, babies, seniors and disabled women. In addition, ISIS caused the complete destruction of Yazidi villages which caused the displacement of thousands of people. Some of these women and girls are survivors of ISIS captivity, and their current living conditions constitute a human rights crisis. This research was designed to explore and provide a better understanding of how and why ISIS used SGBV and to shed light on its multiple dimensions. It aims to illustrate how the survivors are coping with trauma and to explain the challenges that they continue to face in the aftermath of the ISIS invasions.

Darfur And The Crisis Of Governance In Sudan

Author: Carina E. Ray
Editor: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801475948
Size: 20,41 MB
Format: PDF
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A diverse group of academics, activists, officials and rebels contribute chapters about different aspects of conflict in the western Sudanese region of Darfur. These chapters discuss the origins and evolution of the conflict, the various ways in which the conflict has been understood and misperceived (both locally and internationally), the profoundly gendered nature of the conflict, the status of those involved with regard to the Sudanese and international law, and the ongoing struggle for peace in the region. A substantial appendix reproduces UN, ICC, and (many for the first time in English translation) Arabic-language documents to trace the history of the conflict. The book also includes a chronology of major events in Sudan.

The Political Psychology Of War Rape

Author: Inger Skjelsbæk
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136620915
Size: 15,14 MB
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This book provides a conceptual framework for understanding war rape and its impact, through empirical examination of the case of Bosnia. Providing a contextual understanding of sexual violence in war, and situating Bosnian war rape in relation to subsequent conflicts, the book offers a methodological outline of how sexual violence in war can be studied from a political-psychological perspective. It presents empirical findings from the field that show what war rape can entail in the aftermath of armed conflict for victims and their communities. Through its comprehensive approach to Bosnian experiences, the volume expands the conceptualization of victimhood and challenges the assumption that sexual violence is a particularly difficult theme to study because of victim silence. Rather, the author demonstrates there are many voices that can provide insight and understandings of war rape and its impact without having to compromise the safety and privacy of individual victims. Finally, the book shows the ways in which individual experiences of war rape are shaped by national and international discourses on gender, sexuality and politics. This book will be of interest to students of political psychology, war and conflict studies, European politics, ethnic conflict, politics and IR in general.