Soul Machine The Invention Of The Modern Mind

Author: George Makari
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393248690
Size: 12,52 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A brilliant and comprehensive history of the creation of the modern Western mind. Soul Machine takes us back to the origins of modernity, a time when a crisis in religious authority and the scientific revolution led to searching questions about the nature of human inner life. This is the story of how a new concept—the mind—emerged as a potential solution, one that was part soul and part machine, but fully neither. In this groundbreaking work, award-winning historian George Makari shows how writers, philosophers, physicians, and anatomists worked to construct notions of the mind as not an ethereal thing, but a natural one. From the ascent of Oliver Cromwell to the fall of Napoleon, seminal thinkers like Hobbes, Locke, Diderot, and Kant worked alongside often-forgotten brain specialists, physiologists, and alienists in the hopes of mapping the inner world. Conducted in a cauldron of political turmoil, these frequently shocking, always embattled efforts would give rise to psychiatry, mind sciences such as phrenology, and radically new visions of the self. Further, they would be crucial to the establishment of secular ethics and political liberalism. Boldly original, wide-ranging, and brilliantly synthetic, Soul Machine gives us a masterful, new account of the making of the modern Western mind.

Last Frontiers Of The Mind

Author: MOHANDAS MOSES
Editor: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 9788120328518
Size: 14,45 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In this original and brilliantly written book, Mohandas Moses has embarked on a daring theme-the challenge of artificial intelligence to the human mind and human creativity. The mind, he says, is the greatest invention in the universe; it has created the greatest works of art and science: its dimensions and potential are yet to be fathomed. But now the marvellous human mind stands challenged by the machine. To illustrate the central theme of his book, the author has brought together the views of a galaxy of eminent philosophers, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists who have explored the phenomenon and evolution of the human mind and consciousness, and the growth of Artificial Intelligence. The author describes the contribution made by the 'Artificial Intelligentsia', the human-computer interaction, and emphasizes the formidable power of the machine mind to usurp the grandeur of the human mind. He has described the manner in which memory, language, creativity, mathematics, teaching-learning and chess-playing could be altered by the digital culture. He says that 'the question we need to ask ourselves as thinking men is-would we like to sense sensations, experience experiences and think thoughts with under-standing as human beings should or are our personas to be blue matched to the template of the machine mind?' With erudition and wry humour the author takes the reader on a fascinating journey of exploration. Written with brilliance and clarity, there is freshness in his perspective and a lucid presentation of ideas. This book will be of great interest as much to academics, experts on artificial intelligence, as to the general reader who wishes to know about the challenges to the human intellect and creativity in the digital age.

The Pursuit Of The Nazi Mind

Author: Daniel Pick
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191641049
Size: 12,19 MB
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The story of how psychoanalysis was used in the war against Nazi Germany - in the crucial quest to understand the Nazi mind. Daniel Pick brings both the skills of the historian and the trained psychoanalyst to weave together the story of clinical encounters with leading Nazis and the Allies' broader interpretations of the Nazi high command and the mentality of the wider German public who supported them. Following the bizarre capture of Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess in 1941, Pick follows closely the story of how leading British psychiatrists assessed their new charge, in an attempt to understand both the man himself and the psychological bases of his Nazi convictions. At the same time, he uncovers the story of how a team of American officers working for the OSS, the forerunner of the CIA, were engaged in an attempt to understand Hitler's personality from afar, using the theories and techniques of Sigmund Freud. Drawing upon a large cache of archives on both sides of the Atlantic, Pick asks what such psychoanalytical and psychiatric investigations set out to do, showing how Freud's famous 'talking cure' was harnessed to the particular needs of military intelligence during the war and the task of post-war reconstruction that followed. Looking beyond this, he then shows just how deeply post-war Western understandings of how minds work and groups operate were influenced by these wartime attempts to interpret the psychopathology of Nazism.

The Cyclopaedia Or Universal Dictionary Of Arts Sciences And Literature

Author: Abraham Rees
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 17,38 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Foundations Of Psychology

Author: Nicky Hayes
Editor: Cengage Learning EMEA
ISBN: 9781861525895
Size: 15,31 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Foundations of Psychology is a comprehensive introduction to psychology for students working at an advanced level. The text has been revised and updated for its third edition.

The Philosophical Foundations Of Modern Medicine

Author: K. Lee
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 0230353258
Size: 17,23 MB
Format: PDF
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An exploration of the philosophical foundation of modern medicine which explains why such a medicine possesses the characteristics it does and where precisely its strengths as well as its weaknesses lie. Written in plain English, it should be accessible to anyone who is intellectually curious, lay persons and medical professionals alike.

Mind As Machine

Author: Margaret A. Boden
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199241446
Size: 20,49 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Cognitive science is among the most fascinating intellectual achievements of the modern era. The quest to understand the mind is an ancient one. But modern science has offered new insights and techniques that have revolutionized this enquiry. Oxford University Press now presents a masterlyhistory of the field, told by one of its most eminent practitioners.Psychology is the thematic heart of cognitive science, which aims to understand human (and animal) minds. But its core theoretical ideas are drawn from cybernetics and artificial intelligence, and many cognitive scientists try to build functioning models of how the mind works. In that sense,Margaret Boden suggests, its key insight is that mind is a (very special) machine. Because the mind has many different aspects, the field is highly interdisciplinary. It integrates psychology not only with cybernetics/AI, but also with neuroscience and clinical neurology; with the philosophy ofmind, language, and logic; with linguistic work on grammar, semantics, and communication; with anthropological studies of cultures; and with biological (and A-Life) research on animal behaviour, evolution, and life itself. Each of these disciplines, in its own way, asks what the mind is, what itdoes, how it works, how it develops---and how it is even possible.Boden traces the key questions back to Descartes's revolutionary writings, and to the ideas of his followers--and his radical critics--through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Her story shows how controversies in the development of experimental physiology, neurophysiology, psychology,evolutionary biology, embryology, and logic are still relevant today. Then she guides the reader through the complex interlinked paths along which the study of mind developed in the twentieth century. Cognitive science covers all mental phenomena: not just 'cognition' (knowledge), but also emotion,personality, psychopathology, social communication, religion, motor action, and consciousness. In each area, Boden introduces the key ideas and researchers and discusses those philosophical critics who see cognitive science as fundamentally misguided. And she sketches the waves of resistance andacceptance on the part of the media and general public, showing how these have affected the development of the field.No one else could tell this story as Boden can: she has been a member of the cognitive science community since the late-1950s, and has known many of its key figures personally. Her narrative is written in a lively, swift-moving style, enriched by the personal touch of someone who knows the story atfirst hand. Her history looks forward as well as back: besides asking how state-of-the-art research compares with the hopes of the early pioneers, she identifies the most promising current work. Mind as Machine will be a rich resource for anyone working on the mind, in any academic discipline, whowants to know how our understanding of mental capacities has advanced over the years.

The Lagoon

Author: Armand Marie Leroi
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1408836211
Size: 13,94 MB
Format: PDF
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In the Eastern Aegean lies an island of forested hills and olive groves, with streams, marshes and a lagoon that nearly cuts the land in two. It was here, over two thousand years ago, that Aristotle came to work. Aristotle was the greatest philosopher of all time. Author of the Poetics, Politics and Metaphysics, his work looms over the history of Western thought. But he was also a biologist – the first. Aristotle explored the mysteries of the natural world. With the help of fishermen, hunters and farmers, he catalogued the animals in his world, dissected them, observed their behaviours and recorded how they lived, fed, and bred. In his great zoological treatise, Historia animalium, he described the mating habits of herons, the sexual incontinence of girls, the stomachs of snails, the sensitivity of sponges, the flippers of seals, the sounds of cicadas, the destructiveness of starfish, the dumbness of the deaf, the flatulence of elephants and the structure of the human heart. And then, in another dozen books, he explained it all. In The Lagoon, acclaimed biologist Armand Marie Leroi recovers Aristotle's science. He goes to Lesbos to see the creatures that Aristotle saw, where he saw them, and explores the Philosopher's deep ideas and inspired guesses – as well as the things that he got wildly wrong. Leroi shows how Aristotle's science is deeply intertwined with his philosophical system and how modern science even now bears the imprint of its inventor.

Encyclopedia Of Behavioral Neuroscience

Author:
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080914551
Size: 10,48 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Behavioral Neuroscientists study the behavior of animals and humans and the neurobiological and physiological processes that control it. Behavior is the ultimate function of the nervous system, and the study of it is very multidisciplinary. Disorders of behavior in humans touch millions of people’s lives significantly, and it is of paramount importance to understand pathological conditions such as addictions, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism among others, in order to be able to develop new treatment possibilities. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is the first and only multi-volume reference to comprehensively cover the foundation knowledge in the field. This three volume work is edited by world renowned behavioral neuroscientists George F. Koob, The Scripps Research Institute, Michel Le Moal, Université Bordeaux, and Richard F. Thompson, University of Southern California and written by a premier selection of the leading scientists in their respective fields. Each section is edited by a specialist in the relevant area. The important research in all areas of Behavioral Neuroscience is covered in a total of 210 chapters on topics ranging from neuroethology and learning and memory, to behavioral disorders and psychiatric diseases. The only comprehensive Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience on the market Addresses all recent advances in the field Written and edited by an international group of leading researchers, truly representative of the behavioral neuroscience community Includes many entries on the advances in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of complex behavioral, psychiatric, and neurological disorders Richly illustrated in full color Extensively cross referenced to serve as the go-to reference for students and researchers alike The online version features full searching, navigation, and linking functionality An essential resource for libraries serving neuroscientists, psychologists, neuropharmacologists, and psychiatrists

The Emergence Of Modern Architecture

Author: Alexander Tzonis
Editor: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415260251
Size: 17,34 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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How did Modern Architecture come about as a way of thinking? What were the forces that led to its emergence and evolution? From where did the new desires, values and beliefs, the design methods and building types that make up its cognitive system originate? In this book Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis bring together 140 documents spanning a period from the year 1000 to the end of the eighteenth century. They argue that Modern Architectural thinking was created during this period, a wholly new forma mentis for conceiving buildings, landscapes, and cities. The material includes, in addition to the more predictable texts, key extracts from architectural treatises, handbooks, and textbooks, material from letters, articles from the press of the times, scientific memoirs, maxims, poems, plays, and novels. Their authors are equally varied architects, patrons, politicians, artists, poets, scientists, priests, philosophers, and journalists. Some describe and systematize, some argue and criticize, and a large number are eager to present new findings and new ways to construe and construct the world. Through these diverse records, figures, and voices Lefaivre and Tzonis reconstruct a process of complex and perplexing events, conflicts, experiments, and interactions. They uncover that modernism is by its very nature multiple and identify what they call the cognitive 'co-revolution', a web of parallel revolutionary changes occurring in courts, monasteries, palaces, villas, academies, and workshops. This is the story of the replacement over a period of eight centuries of an 'archaic' design mentality, based on myth and ritual, with today's modern forms of reasoning. Marked with contradictions, Modern Architecture emerges making use of rigorous science but also freewheeling fantasy, driven by the desire for efficiency as well as for luxury and aesthetic delight, for adventure of experiences and for critical reflection, for global universality and for regionalist identity, for totalitarian power and for emancipation of the deprived and the oppressed.