The Axial Age And Its Consequences

Author: Robert N. Bellah
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674070445
Size: 13,72 MB
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This book makes the bold claim that intellectual sophistication was born worldwide during the middle centuries of the first millennium bce. From Axial Age thinkers we inherited a sense of the world as a place not just to experience but to investigate, envision, and alter. A variety of utopian visions emerged and led to both reform and repression.

Religious Evolution And The Axial Age

Author: Stephen K. Sanderson
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1350047449
Size: 11,97 MB
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Religious Evolution and the Axial Age describes and explains the evolution of religion over the past ten millennia. It shows that an overall evolutionary sequence can be observed, running from the spirit and shaman dominated religions of small-scale societies, to the archaic religions of the ancient civilizations, and then to the salvation religions of the Axial Age. Stephen K. Sanderson draws on ideas from new cognitive and evolutionary psychological theories, as well as comparative religion, anthropology, history, and sociology. He argues that religion is a biological adaptation that evolved in order to solve a number of human problems, especially those concerned with existential anxiety and ontological insecurity. Much of the focus of the book is on the Axial Age, the period in the second half of the first millennium BCE that marked the greatest religious transformation in world history. The book demonstrates that, as a result of massive increases in the scale and scope of war and large-scale urbanization, the problems of existential anxiety and ontological insecurity became particularly acute. These changes evoked new religious needs, especially for salvation and release from suffering. As a result entirely new religions-Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism-arose to help people cope with the demands of the new historical era.

The Three Axial Ages

Author: John Torpey
Editor: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813590523
Size: 18,80 MB
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How should we think about the “shape” of human history since the birth of cities, and where are we headed? Sociologist and historian John Torpey proposes that the “Axial Age” of the first millennium BCE, when some of the world’s major religious and intellectual developments first emerged, was only one of three such decisive periods that can be used to directly affect present social problems, from economic inequality to ecological destruction. Torpey’s argument advances the idea that there are in fact three “Axial Ages,” instead of one original Axial Age and several subsequent, smaller developments. Each of the three ages contributed decisively to how humanity lives, and the difficulties it faces. The earliest, or original, Axial Age was a moral one; the second was material, and revolved around the creation and use of physical objects; and the third is chiefly mental, and focused on the technological. While there are profound risks and challenges, Torpey shows how a worldview that combines the strengths of all three ages has the potential to usher in a period of exceptional human freedom and possibility.

From The Axial Age To The Moral Revolution John Stuart Glennie Karl Jaspers And A New Understanding Of The Idea

Author: E. Halton
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137473509
Size: 17,48 MB
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In 1873, John Stuart Stuart-Glennie elaborated a theory of 'the moral revolution' to characterize the historical shift from roughly 600 BCE in a variety of civilizations, as part of a critical theory of history. This book brings light to the now eclipsed theory and offers new contexts and understandings of the phenomenon.

Radical Secularization

Author: Stijn Latré
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 162892179X
Size: 17,82 MB
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What does it mean for a society to be secular? Answering this question from a philosophical angle, Radical Secularization? delves into the philosophical presuppositions of secularization. Which cultural evolutions made secularization possible? International scholars from different disciplines assess the answers given by many leading philosophers such as, among others, Löwith, Blumenberg and Habermas (Germany), Gauchet and Nancy (France), Taylor and Bellah (North America). They examine the theory that secularization cannot only be regarded as a cultural change that was forced upon religion from an external source (e.g. science), but should also be considered as a phenomenon triggered by motives internal to religion. If religions are indeed capable of inner transformations, the question arises whether religions can persist in the secular societies they inadvertently helped to bring about, and how secular societies may accommodate religion.

Life Love And Hope

Author: Jan-Olav Henriksen
Editor: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
ISBN: 0802871496
Size: 14,54 MB
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Can Christian belief in God, a contemporary scientific approach to human life, and human experience all be held together? Yes, says Jan-Olav Henriksen, who in this book shows how such a synthesis can be realized. Taking both knowledge of evolution and belief in God as Creator into account, Henriksen s Life, Love, and Hope articulates a vision for understanding the relationship between God and human experience in contemporary terms. Henriksen maintains that evolutionary theory does not account for all that can and must be said about human life and experience. Conversely, he also argues that any belief in God as Creator can be informed and deepened by knowledge of evolution. This thoughtful, nuanced book develops a comprehensive vision that will appeal to anyone who ponders the relationship between God and science.

The Sacredness Of The Person A New Genealogy Of Human Rights

Author: Hans Joas
Editor: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1589019709
Size: 12,36 MB
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What are the origins of the idea of human rights and universal human dignity? How can we most fully understand -- and realize -- these rights going into the future? In The Sacredness of the Person internationally renowned sociologist and social theorist Hans Joas tells a story that differs from conventional narratives by tracing the concept of human rights back to the Judeo-Christian tradition or, alternately, to the secular French Enlightenment. While drawing on sociologists such as Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Ernst Troeltsch, Joas sets out a new path, proposing an affirmative genealogy in which human rights are the result of a process of "sacralization" of every human being. According to Joas, every single human being has increasingly been viewed as sacred. He discusses the abolition of torture and slavery, once common practice in the pre-18th century west, as two milestones in modern human history. The author concludes by portraying the emergence of the UN Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 as a successful process of value generalization. Joas demonstrates that the history of human rights cannot adequately be described as a history of ideas or as legal history, but as a complex transformation in which diverse cultural traditions had to be articulated, legally codified, and assimilated into practices of everyday life. The sacralization of the person and universal human rights will only be secure in the future, warns Joas, through continued support by institutions and society, vigorous discourse in their defense, and their incarnation in everyday life and practice.

Cornelius Castoriadis

Author: Suzi Adams
Editor: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441169148
Size: 19,85 MB
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Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997) was a Greek-French thinker best known for his work on 'autonomy' and 'human creation'. He was a political activist, psychoanalyst, philosopher, political and social thinker and economist. Recognised as a significant and original thinker of the twentieth century, his work is receiving increased scholarly attention. Notwithstanding the richness of his work, Castoriadis's terminology can prove challenging to understand. Cornelius Castoriadis: Key Concepts is the first book of its kind, providing readers with a road map to the fundamentals of his thought. International specialists in Castoriadis's works introduce and clarify the complexity of his thought through the elucidation of nineteen key concepts that are fundamental to understanding - and grappling with - his ideas. Comprehensive and accessible, the entries have been carefully selected to cover the most central aspects - psychoanalysis, sociology, philosophy, politics - and periods of his thought.

An Interpretation Of Religion

Author: John Hick
Editor: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300106688
Size: 18,64 MB
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In this classic work, prominent religious philosopher John Hick presents a global interpretation of religion, arguing for a religious response to our ambiguous universe and showing how the world’s different religions are culturally conditioned forms of that response. For this Second Edition, Hick addresses the major critics of his interpretation of religion, thereby enabling fresh discussion of his work. Praise for the first edition: “This book strengthens Hick’s position as one of the most significant thinkers of the second half of the twentieth century. . . . I highly recommend [it] to students of philosophy, history of religions, and comparative studies, as well as theology.”—Chester Gillis, Journal of Religion “The most persuasive philosophical advocacy for religious pluralism ever written."—Yandall Woodfin, Southwestern Journal of Theology “[This work] evinces Hick’s many virtues: ingenuity; fairness toward all arguments; deference to the standards of analytic philosophy; familiarity with Eastern as well as Western religions; and, not least, a clean, clear prose.”—Robert A. Segal, Christian Century “A leader in interfaith interpretation of religion, Hick has written what will probably become a classic. . . . Clear, readable, and comprehensive.”—Library Journal “Should be read by the adherents of all faiths.”—Rabbi Dan Cohn-Sherbok

Confucian Ethics Of The Axial Age

Author: Heiner Roetz
Editor: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9780791416495
Size: 15,94 MB
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Confucian Ethics of the Axial Age describes the formative period of Chinese culture--the last centuries of the Zhou dynasty--as an early epoch of enlightenment. It comprehensively reconstructs the ethical discourse as thought gradually became emancipated from tradition and institutions. Rather than presenting a chronology of different thinkers and works, this book discusses the systematic aspects of moral philosophies. Based on original texts, Roetz focuses on filial piety; the conflict between the family and the state; the legitimating of the political order; the virtues of loyalty, friendship, and harmony; concepts of justice; the principle of humaneness and its different readings; the Golden Rule; the moral person; the autonomous self, motivation, decision and conscience; and various attempts to ground morality in religion, human nature, or reason. These topics are arranged in such a way that the genetic structure and the logical development of the moral reasoning becomes apparent. From this detached perspective, conventional morality is either rejected or critically reestablished under the restraint of new abstract and universal norms. This makes the Chinese developments part of the ancient worldwide movement of enlightenment of the axial age.