The Behavioural Biology Of Chickens

Author: Christine J Nicol
Editor: CABI
ISBN: 1780642490
File Size: 61,42 MB
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Chickens are by far the world’s most widely farmed animal, kept for both meat and egg production. They are at the centre of many debates regarding housing and production systems, causing significant interest in what lies behind chicken behaviour. This accessible book covers sensory biology, behavioural development, preferences and aversions, social behaviour, learning and cognition, behavioural issues in different systems and solutions for behavioural problems. Authored by an authority on chicken ethology, it brings together the fields of animal behaviour, neuroscience, psychology and epidemiology to provide a comprehensive understanding of chicken behaviour and help improve the lives of farmed chickens around the world.

The Behavioural Biology Of Chickens

Author: Surendra Mohite
Editor:
ISBN: 9781681171005
File Size: 45,62 MB
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Archaeological evidence suggests that the bird commonly known as the chicken (Gallus domesticus) is a domesticated version of the Indian and Southeast Asian Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) which is still found in the wild today. It is thought that the bird was first tamed in China around 6000 BC, with the birds moving into India by 2000 B.C. The chicken then spread from China to Russia and from there into Europe between 750 B.C. 42 A.D. Some scholars believe that the bird may have been domesticated first for its use in cockfighting, and only later used as a food source. The White Leghorn breed or crosses of this breed is the large white bird most commonly used in agriculture and for research, but there are over 400 different breeds of chickens. Chickens have a rigid social structure called the "pecking order" by which every bird establishes who is dominant and who is submissive in relationship to every other bird.

Domestication And Early Experiences In Chickens

Author: Pia Katrine Løtvedt
Editor: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176853926
File Size: 54,81 MB
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A number of animal species have undergone domestication, the process of becoming adapted to living in captivity and in proximity to humans. Common for these species is that they have all developed certain traits, including changes to coat color, body size and level of fearfulness. This has been termed the domestic phenotype. Among these traits is also an attenuation of the response to stress, both behaviorally and physiologically. Thus, release of glucocorticoids such as cortisol or corticosterone is lower in domesticated species. However, the underlying mechanism for this is not yet well understood. In this thesis, we have investigated genetic mechanisms for the attenuation of the physiological stress response in ancestral chickens, the Red Junglefowl, and domesticated chickens, the White Leghorn. We found a number of genes that differed in expression between the two breeds in several tissues involved in the stress response. Among the most interesting findings were lower expression of genes involved in production and secretion of ACTH in the pituitary, and in the production of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands, in the domesticated White Leghorns. We also found higher expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in White Leghorns, indicating that they may have a more efficient negative feedback of the physiological stress response. We then investigated the transcriptome of the chicken pituitary more closely, and we discovered that a number of genes highly involved in several important physiological axes showed differential expression between the ancestral and the domesticated breed. Among these were genes involved in the stress response, the reproductive system, and in metabolism and growth. As these traits are modified in domesticated species, our results suggest that changes to gene expression in the pituitary may be an important underlying factor of the domestic phenotype. A separate aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of hatching time in chickens on their subsequent phenotype. Time of hatching constitutes an early experience that may differ between individuals, and we therefore hypothesized that differences in hatching time would affect chickens later in life. While a number of studies have been performed on hatching time and post-hatch growth, very little work has been done on effects on behavior. We found that the time of hatching had sex-specific effects. Hatching times in females were negatively correlated with body weight, whereas in males, behaviors such as reaction to novelty and spatial learning were affected. As time of hatching is governed by various hormones, including thyroid hormone and corticosterone, we suggest that changes to the levels of these hormones could affect both hatching time and post-hatch phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms better would be beneficial in terms of production, where batch homogeneity is important, in research on early experiences and the potential for maternal programming, and in evolutionary questions on trade-off between different life strategies.

Advances In Poultry Welfare

Author:
Editor: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081009305
File Size: 23,23 MB
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Advances in Poultry Welfare provides a targeted overview of contemporary developments in poultry welfare. The reviews in the volume address topical issues related to poultry welfare research and assessment, with a focus on identifying practical strategies for improvement as well as information gaps that remain to be filled. Part One provides an introduction to poultry production systems and gives a broad overview of current poultry welfare issues. Part Two moves on to review several aspects of poultry management, focusing on hatchery practices, early rearing, and slaughter. Part Three deals with welfare assessment on the farm, while Part Four explores continuing challenges, such as feather pecking and skeletal problems. This is followed in Part Five by a discussion of emerging issues, with chapters covering alternative parasite control methods, backyard poultry production, mass depopulation, and genetic approaches to reducing the impact of environmental stressors on welfare. This book is an essential part of the wider ranging series Advances in Farm Animal Welfare, with coverage of cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry. With its expert editor and international team of contributors, Advances in Poultry Welfare is a key reference tool for welfare research scientists and students, veterinarians involved in welfare assessment, and indeed anyone with a professional interest in the welfare of poultry. Provides in-depth reviews of emerging topics, research and applications in poultry welfare Integral part of a wider series, Advances in Agricultural Animal Welfare, which will provide comprehensive coverage of animal welfare of the world’s major farmed animals Covers a range of topical issues within the field, from beak-trimming and skeletal problems, to early rearing and the design and management of poultry production systems Edited by a distinguished leader in the field

The Behavioural Biology Of Dogs

Author: Per Jensen
Editor: CABI
ISBN: 1845931874
File Size: 36,35 MB
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Written by experts in different areas, this book presents an up-to-date account of the behavioral biology of dogs. Split in three parts, the book addresses the specific aspects of behavioral biology. The first part deals with the evolution and development of the dog, whereas the next part deals with basic aspects of dog behavior. The final part emphasizes on the behavioral problems, their prevention and cure.

Behavioural Biology Of The Collared Lemming

Author: Ronald J. Brooks
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 33,54 MB
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Commercial Chicken Meat And Egg Production

Author: Donald D. Bell
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792372004
File Size: 68,90 MB
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Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production is the 5th edition of a highly successful book first authored by Dr. Mack O. North in 1972, updated in 1978 and 1984. The 4th edition was co-authored with Donald D. Bell in 1990. The book has achieved international success as a reference for students and commercial poultry and egg producers in every major poultry producing country in the world. The 5th edition is essential reading for students preparing to enter the poultry industry, for owners and managers of existing poultry companies and for scientists who need a major source of scientifically based material on poultry management. In earlier editions, the authors emphasized the chicken and its management. The 5th edition, with the emphasis shifted to the commercial business of managing poultry, contains over 75% new material. The contributions of 14 new authors make this new edition the most comprehensive such book available. Since extensive references are made to the international aspects of poultry management, all data are presented in both the Imperial and Metric form. Over 300 tables and 250 photos and figures support 62 chapters of text. New areas include processing of poultry and eggs with thorough discussions of food safety and further processing. The business of maintaining poultry is discussed in chapters on economics, model production firms, the use of computers, and record keeping. Updated topics include: breeders and hatchery operations; broiler and layer flock management; replacement programs and management of replacements; nutrition; and flock health. New chapters address flock behavior, ventilation, waste management, egg quality and egg breakage. Other new features include a list of more than 400 references and a Master List of the tables, figures, manufacturers of equipment and supplies, research institutions, books and periodicals, breeders, and trade associations. Commercial growers will find the tables of data of particular interest; scientists will be able to utilize the extensive references and to relate their areas of interest to the commercial industry's applications; and students will find that the division of the book into 11 distinct sections, with multiple chapters in each, will make the text especially useful.

Communications In Behavioral Biology

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 71,77 MB
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Neural And Behavioural Plasticity

Author: R. J. Andrew
Editor: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN:
File Size: 45,69 MB
Format: PDF
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Over the past 20 years the chick has proved an invaluable model for work on memory formation. This book reviews the work on learning and plasticity in behavioural and neural mechanisms in the chick, as well as related topics, such as the development of behaviour and the lateralization of function.

Behavioral Lateralization In Vertebrates

Author: Davide Csermely
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642302033
File Size: 43,49 MB
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Functional lateralization in the human brain was first identified in the classic observations by Broca in the 19th century. Only one hundred years later, however, research on this topic began anew, discovering that humans share brain lateralization not only with other mammals, but with other vertebrates and even invertebrates. Studies on lateralization have also received considerable attention in recent years due to their important evolutionary implications, becoming an important and flourishing field of investigation worldwide among ethnologists and psychologists. The chapters of this book concern the emergence and adaptive function of lateralization in several aspects of behavior for a wide range of vertebrate taxa. These studies span from how lateralization affects some aspects of fitness in fishes, or how it affects the predatory and the exploratory behavior of lizards, to navigation in the homing flights of pigeons, social learning in chicks, the influence of lateralization on the ontogeny process of chicks, and the similarity of manual lateralization (handedness) between humans and apes, our closest relatives.

Abstracts And Reviews In Behavioral Biology

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 70,86 MB
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Welfare Of The Laying Hen

Author: G. C. Perry
Editor: CABI
ISBN: 9780851990361
File Size: 20,62 MB
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The welfare of egg-producing poultry is a topic of great concern to the poultry industry and to researchers in applied animal behaviour. It is also subject to increased legislation. Issues such as battery cages, space requirements, access to daylight and ''free-range'' eggs have attracted public interest.

Australian Journal Of Zoology

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 55,64 MB
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Advances In Behavioral Biology

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 27,81 MB
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Spider Research In The 21st Century

Author: David Penney
Editor:
ISBN: 0957453019
File Size: 27,13 MB
Format: PDF
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The Development Of Brain And Behaviour In The Chicken

Author: CABI
Editor: C A B International
ISBN:
File Size: 15,91 MB
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Development of brain and behaviour before hatching; Environmental influences on development of the embryo; Early learning after hatching; Brain development after hatching; Behavioural transitions in early posthatching life; Comparison with development in other species; Can a brain be domesticated?.

Quo Vadis Behavioural Biology Past Present And Future Of An Evolving Science

Author: Andreas Wessel
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 49,56 MB
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Nutrition And Mental Functions

Author: George Serban
Editor: Springer
ISBN:
File Size: 57,70 MB
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The description of sequelae of nutritional deficien cies was equally oversimplified. Obviously, a disease like rickets, which affected hard tissues--the skeleton- had irreversible consequences. Destruction or alteration of tissues, such as in cancrum oris or severe xerophthal mia, was equally permanent and easily observed. Other models were beriberi or scurvy, where, by contrast, the vitamin treatment seemed to restore the individual to the completely normal status quo ante. Most nutritionists were therefore little prepared intellectually for the series of suggestive findings con cerning nutrition and mental development which has been the highlight of nutritional research in the past decade: the discovery that there are irreversible gaps in mental development not correlated with obvious permanent somatic lesions which follow acute malnutrition during the develop ment of the young infant. Furthermore, not only are ex isting somatic instruments--physical examination, the scale, and the measuring tape--inadequate to detect such intellectual and behavioral deficits, but some of the current psychological instruments, bound to traditions of Western culture, are often poorly adapted to measure fine differences in psychological development among poor populations. These initial discoveries have stimulated important methodological advances, ranging from better staining techniques for the study of fibers connecting brain neurons to better tests for the study of cognitive development.