The Ecological Detective

Author: Ray Hilborn
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400847311
Size: 10,70 MB
Format: PDF
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The modern ecologist usually works in both the field and laboratory, uses statistics and computers, and often works with ecological concepts that are model-based, if not model-driven. How do we make the field and laboratory coherent? How do we link models and data? How do we use statistics to help experimentation? How do we integrate modeling and statistics? How do we confront multiple hypotheses with data and assign degrees of belief to different hypotheses? How do we deal with time series (in which data are linked from one measurement to the next) or put multiple sources of data into one inferential framework? These are the kinds of questions asked and answered by The Ecological Detective. Ray Hilborn and Marc Mangel investigate ecological data much as a detective would investigate a crime scene by trying different hypotheses until a coherent picture emerges. The book is not a set of pat statistical procedures but rather an approach. The Ecological Detective makes liberal use of computer programming for the generation of hypotheses, exploration of data, and the comparison of different models. The authors' attitude is one of exploration, both statistical and graphical. The background required is minimal, so that students with an undergraduate course in statistics and ecology can profitably add this work to their tool-kit for solving ecological problems.

The Ecological Consequences Of Environmental Heterogeneity

Author: British Ecological Society. Symposium
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780632057139
Size: 15,56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Presents advances in the measurement and interpretation of the impacts of environmental heterogenity upon organisms and ecological processes. The 18 contributions from the March 1999 symposium discuss the effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on individuals, populations, communities and biodiversity; and the management and conservation implications of environmental heterogeneity. Topics include plant response to patchy soils, heterogeneity in plant quality and its impact on the population ecology of insect herbivores, and genetic variation and adaptation in tree populations. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR

Introduction To Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling For Ecological Data

Author: Eric Parent
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1584889209
Size: 11,98 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Making statistical modeling and inference more accessible to ecologists and related scientists, Introduction to Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling for Ecological Data gives readers a flexible and effective framework to learn about complex ecological processes from various sources of data. It also helps readers get started on building their own statistical models. The text begins with simple models that progressively become more complex and realistic through explanatory covariates and intermediate hidden states variables. When fitting the models to data, the authors gradually present the concepts and techniques of the Bayesian paradigm from a practical point of view using real case studies. They emphasize how hierarchical Bayesian modeling supports multidimensional models involving complex interactions between parameters and latent variables. Data sets, exercises, and R and WinBUGS codes are available on the authors’ website. This book shows how Bayesian statistical modeling provides an intuitive way to organize data, test ideas, investigate competing hypotheses, and assess degrees of confidence of predictions. It also illustrates how conditional reasoning can dismantle a complex reality into more understandable pieces. As conditional reasoning is intimately linked with Bayesian thinking, considering hierarchical models within the Bayesian setting offers a unified and coherent framework for modeling, estimation, and prediction.

Ecological Statistics

Author: Gordon A. Fox
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191652881
Size: 19,60 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The application and interpretation of statistics are central to ecological study and practice. Ecologists are now asking more sophisticated questions than in the past. These new questions, together with the continued growth of computing power and the availability of new software, have created a new generation of statistical techniques. These have resulted in major recent developments in both our understanding and practice of ecological statistics. This novel book synthesizes a number of these changes, addressing key approaches and issues that tend to be overlooked in other books such as missing/censored data, correlation structure of data, heterogeneous data, and complex causal relationships. These issues characterize a large proportion of ecological data, but most ecologists' training in traditional statistics simply does not provide them with adequate preparation to handle the associated challenges. Uniquely, Ecological Statistics highlights the underlying links among many statistical approaches that attempt to tackle these issues. In particular, it gives readers an introduction to approaches to inference, likelihoods, generalized linear (mixed) models, spatially or phylogenetically-structured data, and data synthesis, with a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding and subsequent application to data analysis. Written by a team of practicing ecologists, mathematical explanations have been kept to the minimum necessary. This user-friendly textbook will be suitable for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology who are interested in updating their statistical tool kits. A companion web site provides example data sets and commented code in the R language.

Scaling Relations In Experimental Ecology

Author: Robert H. Gardner
Editor: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 023152904X
Size: 12,79 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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-- Ecology

Bird Ecology And Conservation

Author: William J. Sutherland
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191036986
Size: 14,50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The aim of this book is to outline the main methods and techniques available to ornithologists. A general shortage of information about available techniques is greatly hindering progress in avian ecology and conservation. Currently this sort of information is disparate and difficult to locate with much of it widely dispersed in books, journals and grey literature. Sutherland and his editorial team bring together in a single authoritative source all the ornithological techniques the avian community will ever need. For use by graduate students, researchers and practising conservationists worldwide. Bird Ecology and Conservation is the first title in a new series of practical handbooks which include titles focusing on specific taxonomic groups as well as those describing broader themes and subjects. The series editor is William J Sutherland.

Methods In Comparative Plant Population Ecology

Author: David Gibson
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651230
Size: 13,74 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.

Discontinuities In Ecosystems And Other Complex Systems

Author: Craig R. Allen
Editor: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231516827
Size: 13,21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Following the publication of C. S. Holling's seminal work on the relationship between animal body mass patterns and scale-specific landscape structure, ecologists began to explore the theoretical and applied consequences of discontinuities in ecosystems and other complex systems. Are ecosystems and their components continuously distributed and do they adhere to scaling laws, or are they discontinuous and more complex than early models would have us believe? The resulting propositions over the structure of complex systems sparked an ongoing debate regarding the mechanisms generating discontinuities and the statistical methods used for their detection. This volume takes the view that ecosystems and other complex systems are inherently discontinuous and that such fields as ecology, economics, and urban studies greatly benefit from this paradigm shift. Contributors present evidence of the ubiquity of discontinuous distributions in ecological and social systems and how their analysis provides insight into complex phenomena. The book is divided into three sections. The first focuses on background material and contrasting views concerning the discontinuous organization of complex systems. The second discusses discontinuous patterns detected in a number of different systems and methods for detecting them, and the third touches on the potential significance of discontinuities in complex systems. Science is still dominated by a focus on power laws, but the contributors to this volume are convinced power laws often mask the interesting dynamics of systems and that those dynamics are best revealed by investigating deviations from assumed power law distributions. In 2008, a grand conference on resilience was held in Stockholm, hosting 600 participants from around the world. There are now three big centers established with resilience, the most recent one being the Stockholm Resilience Center, with others in Australia (an international coral reef center), Arizona State University's new sustainability center focusing on anthropology, and Canada's emerging social sciences and resilience center. Activity continues to flourish in Alaska, South Africa, and the Untied Kingdom, and a new center is forming in Uruguay.

The Ecological Consequences Of Host Density Dependence And Parasitoid Fecundity For Host Parasitoid Population Dynamics

Author: Stephen D. Lane
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 10,12 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Stop Working Start Thinking

Author: Jack Cohen
Editor: Garland Science
ISBN: 9780415368308
Size: 18,18 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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With the spectacular developments in technology accompanying and aiding scientific research over the past few decades, postgraduate students are often encouraged to focus more on generating data than to utilize their most sophisticated piece of equipment: their mind. Stop Working & Start Thinking, Second Edition aims to encourage young researchers to think more clearly about their experiments, from experimental design to data interpretation. This new edition builds on the success of the first edition, with new material throughout and a new chapter on measurement interpretation, including an examination of cryptic assumptions. This book is essential reading for postgraduates who wish to put the mastery back into their M.Sc. and the philosophy back into their PhDs.