The Horse The Wheel And Language

Author: David W. Anthony
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831104
Size: 14,66 MB
Format: PDF
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Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization. Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.

Next Word Better Word

Author: Stephen Dobyns
Editor: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 9780230118782
Size: 18,95 MB
Format: PDF
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This accessible writer's guide provides a helpful framework for creating poetry and navigates contemporary concerns and practices. Stephen Dobyns, author of the classic book on the beauty of poetry, Best Words, Best Order, moves into new terrain in this remarkable book. Bringing years of experience to bear on issues such as subject matter, the mechanics of poetry, and the revision process, Dobyns explores the complex relationship between writers and their work. From Philip Larkin to Pablo Neruda to William Butler Yeats, every chapter reveals useful lessons in these renowned poets' work. Both enlightening and encouraging, Next Word, Better Word demystifies a subtle art form and shows writers how to overcome obstacles in the creative process.

The Horse In Literature And Film

Author: Francisco LaRubia-Prado
Editor: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498534929
Size: 17,43 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Horses serve as central characters in great literary works that span ages and cultures. But why? In The Horse in Literature and Film: Uncovering a Transcultural Paradigm, Francisco LaRubia-Prado, Ph.D. explores the deep symbolic meaning, cultural significance, and projective power that these magnificent animals carry in literature, film, and the human psyche. Examining iconic texts and films from the Middle Ages to the present—and from Western and Eastern cultural traditions—this book reveals how horses, as timeless symbols of nature, bring harmony to unbalanced situations. Regardless of how disrupted human lives become, whether through the suffering caused by the atrocities of war, or the wrestling of individuals and society with issues of authenticity, horses offer an antidote firmly rooted in nature. The Horse in Literature and Film is a book for our time. After an introduction to the field of animal studies, it analyzes celebrated works by authors and film directors such as Leo Tolstoy, Heinrich von Kleist, D.H. Lawrence, Akira Kurosawa, John Huston, Girish Karnad, Michael Morpurgo, and Benedikt Erlingsson. Exploring issues such as power, the boundaries between justice and the law, the meaning of love and home, the significance of cultural belonging, and the consequences of misguided nationalism, this book demonstrates the far-reaching consequences of human disconnection from nature, and the role of the horse in individual and societal healing.

A Bronze Age Landscape In The Russian Steppes

Author: David W. Anthony
Editor: ISD LLC
ISBN: 1938770323
Size: 17,61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The first English-language monograph that describes seasonal and permanent Late Bronze Age settlements in the Russian steppes, this is the final report of the Samara Valley Project, a US-Russian archaeological investigation conducted between 1995 and 2002. It explores the changing organization and subsistence resources of pastoral steppe economies from the Eneolithic (4500 BC) through the Late Bronze Age (1900-1200 BC) across a steppe-and-river valley landscape in the middle Volga region, with particular attention to the role of agriculture during the unusual episode of sedentary, settled pastoralism that spread across the Eurasian steppes with the Srubnaya and Andronovo cultures (1900-1200 BC). Three astonishing discoveries were made by the SVP archaeologists: agriculture played no role in the LBA diet across the region, a surprise given the settled residential pattern; a unique winter ritual was practiced at Krasnosamarskoe involving dog and wolf sacrifices, possibly related to male initiation ceremonies; and overlapping spheres of obligation, cooperation, and affiliation operated at different scales to integrate groups defined by politics, economics, and ritual behaviors.

Broken Timelines Book 3 The Indo Europeans And Harappans

Author: Jack Stornoway
Editor: Digital Ink Productions
ISBN: 1989604366
Size: 15,24 MB
Format: PDF
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The current conventional Harappan and Indo-European timelines are impossible. Believing in them means endorsing the idea the Harappan, arguably the largest civilization of the Bronze Age lagged thousand years technically behind the minor nations that surrounded them. Likewise, it means their major trading partners, the Sumerians, Elamites, and Akkadians were all technology backwards, compared to the minor nations of India, Central Asia, and even the middle of the Sahara, which all were smelting iron long before iron smelting was adopted by the major powers. DNA has now proven that the population of northern India was the same in 2400 BC as it is today, which, in the conventional timelines means the Vedas would have had to have been written in the Indus Valley Civilization, yet, the Harappans mainly used boats to travel the rivers of India, and there is no evidence of horses or horse burials in the Indus Valley Civilization. So why did horses get mentioned so much in the Vedas? Why write major hymns about hurrying animals you don't have? Why didn't they mention boats, which they basically lived in? The fact is that Indo-Europeans have lived in India and Pakistan since at least 2400 BC, yet, there are no traces of Indo-European words in the languages of Mesopotamia until around 1500 BC according to the Conventional Mesopotamian Timeline, when Mesopotamians adopted Indo-Aryan terms for horses and chariots, even though they'd had both horses and chariots since 2400 BC, again according to the conventional timelines. Meanwhile, their other major trading partner, Egypt, did not have access to horses or chariots until around 1600 BC? These cultures trades everything from rock and metals to food and timber, but no one thought to import horses, even though there were over land trade routes? They trades everything from gods to the designs for buildings, and even the underlying concepts of writing, yet no one thought the wheel might be useful? The existence of massive Harappan-like cities both on land and under submerged coasts, all of which have been carbon dated to thousands of years before the Conventional Harappan Timeline, prove that the random guess-work of the earliest Indologists in the 1920s just isn't right. So, why with all the modern techniques and evidence, both in South Asia, and through Central Asia all the way into Eastern Europe, do we cling to their random guess-work? Simply put, the timelines of the Harappans and Indo-Europeans cannot be adjusted, without forcing a correction on the conventional timelines of Mesopotamia and Egypt as well. Unfortunately, the timelines of Egypt and Sumer are the two pillars that ancient history is built around. As the early Sumerians were trading with the early Egyptians, Assyriologists have been forced to synchronize the Mesopotamian timeline with the preposterous timeline used by Egyptologists. While this means that most of Sumerian history has to be ignored, is also affects the timelines of all other Eurasian cultures in contact with the Mesopotamian. The Harappan civilization of ancient India was trading with the Sumerians throughout its history and went into decline around the end of the Sumero-Akkadian dynastic period, which means the entire Harappan civilization is forced to correlate with the short Conventional Mesopotamian Timeline. This forced the entire Harappan timeline into a period of 2000 years, even though some of the archaeological sites in Pakistan and India have been carbon-dated back to over 8000 BC. These broken timelines then fan out further pulling the Minoans and Greeks, Iranians, and Chinese into this confusing mess.

How Ancient Europeans Saw The World

Author: Peter S. Wells
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691143382
Size: 17,90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The people who inhabited Europe during the two millennia before the Roman conquests had established urban centers, large-scale production of goods such as pottery and iron tools, a money economy, and more. This title argues the visual world of these late prehistoric communities was different from those of ancient Rome's literate civilization.

Linguistics An Introduction

Author: William B. McGregor
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 0567488683
Size: 17,37 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This is the new edition of Linguistics: An Introduction. It is a bestselling introductory textbook for all students of linguistics and language studies. This reworked edition features: -new chapters on sign languages, writing, and text and discourse -coverage of writing in electronic media -revised and updated chapters on languages of the world and psycholinguistics Firmly based around taught courses and catering to student needs, it addresses all the topics that a student will need in their study of language. With key terms, further reading, questions at the end of each chapter, exercises and key paragraphs in stand-out boxes, this is a firmly pedagogic text that takes difficult concepts and explains them in an easy to understand way. It features examples taken from a range of languages across the world. Global in its scope and comprehensive in its coverage, this is the textbook of choice for linguistics students. The book comes with a large Companion Website, also extensively revised and expanded. For lecturers and instructors, a comprehensive Answer Book is also available to go along with the questions throughout the chapters.

The Oxford Handbook Of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199394474
Size: 18,14 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.

Ancient Jewish Sciences And The History Of Knowledge In Second Temple Literature

Author: Seth L. Sanders
Editor: NYU Press
ISBN: 147986398X
Size: 12,41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Until very recently, the idea of ancient Jewish sciences would have been considered unacceptable. Since the 1990’s, Early Modern and Medieval Science in Jewish sources has been actively studied, but the consensus was that no real scientific themes could be found in earlier Judaism. This work points them out in detail, and posits a new field of research: the scientific activity evident in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Early Jewish Pseudepigrapha. The publication of new texts and new analyses of older ones reveals crucial elements that are best illuminated by the history of science, and may have interesting consequences for it. The contributors evaluate these texts in relation to astronomy, astrology and physiognomy, marking the first comprehensive attempt to account for scientific themes in Second Temple Judaism. They investigate the meaning and purpose of scientific explorations in an apocalyptic setting. An appreciation of these topics paves the way to a renewed understanding of the scientific fragments scattered throughout rabbinic literature. The book first places the Jewish material in the ancient context of the Near Eastern and Hellenistic worlds. While the Jewish texts were not on the cutting edge of scientific discovery, they find a meaningful place in the history of science, between Babylonia and Egypt, in the time period between Hipparchus and Ptolemy. The book uses recent advances in method to examine the contacts and networks of Jewish scholars in their ancient setting. Second, the essays here tackle the problematic concept of a national scientific tradition. Although science is nowadays often conceived as universal, the historiography of ancient Jewish sciences demonstrates the importance of seeing the development of science in a local context. The book explores the tension between the hegemony of central scientific traditions and local scientific enterprises, showing the relevance of ancient data to contemporary postcolonial historiography of science. Finally, philosophical questions of the demarcation of science are addressed in a way that can advance the discussion of related ancient materials. Online edition available as part of the NYU Library's Ancient World Digital Library and in partnership with the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World (ISAW).

The Uniqueness Of Western Civilization

Author: Ricardo Duchesne
Editor: BRILL
ISBN: 9004192484
Size: 17,56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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After challenging the multicultural effort to “provincialize” the history of Western civilization, this book argues that the roots of the West’s exceptional creativity should be traced back to the uniquely aristocratic warlike culture of Indo-European speakers.