The Human Microbiota And Microbiome

Author: Julian R Marchesi
Editor: CABI
ISBN: 1780640498
File Size: 29,12 MB
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Thousands of different microbial species colonize the human body, and are essential for our survival. This book presents a review of the current understanding of human microbiomes, the functions that they bring to the host, how we can model them, their role in health and disease and the methods used to explore them. Current research into areas such as the long-term effect of antibiotics makes this a subject of considerable interest. This title is essential reading for researchers and students of microbiology.

The Human Microbiota In Health And Disease

Author: Mike Wilson
Editor: Garland Science
ISBN: 9780815345855
File Size: 23,65 MB
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A human being is a symbiotic system that consists of a mammalian component interacting with a multiplicity of microbes, collectively referred to as the microbiota. The microbiota associated with humans is comprised of a variety of communities, the composition of each being dependant on the particular body site it inhabits. This book describes the various communities inhabiting humans as well as their important roles in human health and disease. An ecological approach has been adopted throughout the book to explain why the microbial community at a particular body site has a particular composition when in balance with the host (eubiosis), and why certain factors can disrupt the balance and induce dysbiosis. The techniques used to determine microbial community composition are discussed and a chapter is devoted to the many factors that underlie this mammalian-microbe symbiosis. The Human Microbiome In Health And Disease is aimed at senior undergraduates and graduates whose courses include a module on the indigenous microbiota of humans. It will also be useful to professional scientists, clinicians, and others who are keen to know more about the human microbiota and its role in health and disease.

The Human Microbiota

Author: David N. Fredricks
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118409809
File Size: 68,85 MB
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The Human Microbiota offers a comprehensive review of all human-associated microbial niches in a single volume, focusing on what modern tools in molecular microbiology are revealing about human microbiota, and how specific microbial communities can be associated with either beneficial effects or diseases. An excellent resource for microbiologists, physicians, infectious disease specialists, and others in the field, the book describes the latest research findings and evaluates the most innovative research approaches and technologies. Perspectives from pioneers in human microbial ecology are provided throughout.

The Human Microbiome Handbook

Author: Jason Tetro
Editor: DEStech Publications, Inc
ISBN: 1605951595
File Size: 20,21 MB
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Critical reference explains strategies of microbiome research in humansSummarizes the microbiome's effects on immunity, metabolism, genetics and psychologyEvaluates medical and nutritional therapies for modifying the microbiomeFor healthcare researchers, nutritionists, microbiologists, and medical professionals Written by a team of leading scientists, this book offers a concise technical reference covering human microbiome research and its ramifications for medicine and nutrition. The initial chapters furnish a scientific explanation of the microbiome in general and its ecology. The book then provides a detailed investigation of microbial populations as these pertain to physiology, metabolism and immunology. The final portions are devoted to exploration of the microbiome's effects on chronic and autoimmune diseases and include assessments of clinical therapies and nutritional interventions designed to alter the microbiome to mitigate chronic health conditions.

The Human Microbiota In Health And Disease

Author: Mike Wilson
Editor: Garland Science
ISBN: 1351068350
File Size: 49,50 MB
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A human being consists of a mammalian component and a multiplicity of microbes, collectively referred to as the "microbiota" or "microbiome," with which it has a symbiotic relationship. The microbiota is comprised of a variety of communities, the composition of each being dependent on the body site it inhabits. This community variation arises because the numerous locations on a human being provide very different environments, each of which favors the establishment of a distinct microbial community. Each community consists of bacteria, fungi and viruses with, in some cases, archaea and/or protozoa. It is increasingly being recognized that the indigenous microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of its human host. However, changes in the overall composition of a microbial community at a body site, or an increase in the proportion of a particular species in that community, can result in disease or other adverse consequences for the host. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease: An Ecological and Community-Based Approach describes the nature of the various communities inhabiting humans as well as the important roles they play in human health and disease. It discusses techniques used to determine microbial community composition and features a chapter devoted to the many factors that underlie this mammalian–microbe symbiosis. Uniquely, the book adopts an ecological approach to examining the microbial community’s composition at a particular body site and why certain factors can shift a community from a eubiotic to a dysbiotic state. The book is for undergraduates and postgraduates on courses with a module on the indigenous microbiota of humans. It will also be useful to scientists, clinicians, and others seeking information on the human microbiota and its role in health and disease.

The Human Microbiome In Early Life

Author: Omry Koren
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128180986
File Size: 79,71 MB
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The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

The Human Microbiota And Chronic Disease

Author: Luigi Nibali
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118982878
File Size: 49,29 MB
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Microbiota-associated pathology can be a direct result of changes in general bacterial composition, such as might be found in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis, and/or as the result of colonization and/or overgrowth of so called keystone species. The disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota, or dysbiosis, plays an integral role in human health and human disease. The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease: Dysbioses as a Cause of Human Pathology discusses the role of the microbiota in maintaining human health. The text introduces the reader to the biology of microbial dysbiosis and its potential role in both bacterial disease and in idiopathic chronic disease states. Divided into five sections, the text delineates the concept of the human bacterial microbiota with particular attention being paid to the microbiotae of the gut, oral cavity and skin. A key methodology for exploring the microbiota, metagenomics, is also described. The book then shows the reader the cellular, molecular and genetic complexities of the bacterial microbiota, its myriad connections with the host and how these can maintain tissue homeostasis. Chapters then consider the role of dysbioses in human disease states, dealing with two of the commonest bacterial diseases of humanity – periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. The composition of some, if not all microbiotas can be controlled by the diet and this is also dealt with in this section. The discussion moves on to the major ‘idiopathic’ diseases afflicting humans, and the potential role that dysbiosis could play in their induction and chronicity. The book then concludes with the therapeutic potential of manipulating the microbiota, introducing the concepts of probiotics, prebiotics and the administration of healthy human faeces (faecal microbiota transplantation), and then hypothesizes as to the future of medical treatment viewed from a microbiota-centric position. Provides an introduction to dysbiosis, or a disruption in the composition of the normal human microbiota Explains how microbiota-associated pathology and other chronic diseases can result from changes in general bacterial composition Explores the relationship humans have with their microbiota, and its significance in human health and disease Covers host genetic variants and their role in the composition of human microbial biofilms, integral to the relationship between human health and human disease Authored and edited by leaders in the field, The Human Microbiota and Human Chronic Disease will be an invaluable resource for clinicians, pathologists, immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, biochemists, and system biologists studying cellular and molecular bases of human diseases.

Commensal Koch S Postulates Establishing Causation In Human Microbiota Research

Author:
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 41,98 MB
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Highlights: The tenets of Koch's postulates are relevant to modern-day microbiota research. Health-promoting microorganisms can be identified in silico, via metagenomics. Methodological advances have rendered the human gut microbiota largely culturable. Commensals used individually or as consortia can restore colonisation resistance. Translation of microbiome science requires an inter-disciplinary approach. Abstract : Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and the development of sophisticated bioinformatics analysis methods, algorithms, and pipelines to handle the large amounts of data generated have driven the field of human microbiome research forward. This specialist knowledge has been crucial to thoroughly mine the human gut microbiota, particularly in the absence of methods for the routine cultivation of most enteric microorganisms. In recent years, however, significant efforts have been made to address the 'great plate count anomaly' and to overcome the barriers to cultivation of the fastidious and mostly strictly anaerobic bacteria that reside in the human gut. As a result, many new species have been discovered, characterised, genome sequenced, and deposited in culture collections. These continually expanding resources enable experimental investigation of the human gut microbiota, validation of hypotheses made with sequence-based analyses, and phenotypic characterisation of its constituent microbes. Herein we propose a variant of Koch's postulates, aimed at providing a framework to establish causation in microbiome studies, with a particular focus on demonstrating the health-promoting role of the commensal gut microbiota.

Microbiota

Author: Takashi Matsumoto
Editor:
ISBN: 9781910190937
File Size: 41,61 MB
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Essential reading for everyone working with human microbiota, probiotics and prebiotics.

Understanding The Gut Microbiota

Author: Gerald W. Tannock
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118801423
File Size: 15,78 MB
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This book discusses the community of microbial species (the microbiota, microbiome), which inhabits the large bowel of humans. Written from the perspective of an academic who has been familiar with the topic for 40 years, it provides a long-term perspective of knowledge about this high profile and fast-moving topic. Building on general ecological principles, the book aims to help the reader to understand how the microbiota is formed, how it works, and what the consequences are to humans. Understanding the Gut Microbiota focuses on conceptual progress made from studies of the human bowel microbiota. Where appropriate, it draws on knowledge obtained from other animal species to provide conceptual enlightenment, but this is essentially a book about humans and their bowel microbes. Particular research approaches are recommended to fill knowledge gaps so that fundamental ecological theory and information about the microbiota can be translated into benefits for human health. The relationship between food for humans and resulting food for bowel bacteria emerges as an important topic for consideration. This concise scholarly treatise of the microbiota of the human bowel will be of great interest and use as a text and reference work for professionals, teachers and students across a wide range of disciplines, including the health sciences, general biology, and food science and technology. The provision of handy ‘explanation of terms’ means that those with a general interest in science can also read the book with enjoyment. About the Author Gerald W. Tannock, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

The Human Microbiome And Cancer

Author: Gary Moran
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889639894
File Size: 52,58 MB
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Human Microbiota Interactions In Health And Disease

Author: Matthew Geoffrey Collison
Editor:
ISBN:
File Size: 12,49 MB
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The Plant Microbiome And Its Importance For Plant And Human Health

Author: Martin Grube
Editor: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889193780
File Size: 54,27 MB
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The study of plant-microbe associations by new techniques has significantly improved our understanding of the structure and specificity of the plant microbiome. Yet, microbiome function and the importance of the plant’s microbiome in the context of human and plant health are largely unexplored. Comparable with our human microbiome, millions of microbes inhabit plants, forming complex ecological communities that influence plant growth and health through its collective metabolic activities and host interactions. Viewing the microbiota from an ecological perspective can provide insight into how to promote plant health and stress tolerance of their hosts or how to adapt to a changing climate by targeting this microbial community. Moreover, the plant microbiome has a substantial impact on human health by influencing our gut microbiome by eating raw plants such as lettuce and herbs but also by influencing the microbiome of our environment through airflow. This research topic comprising reviews, original and opinion articles highlights the current knowledge regarding plant microbiomes, their specificity, diversity and function as well as all aspects studying the management of plant microbiomes to enhance plant growth, health quality and stress tolerance.

Role Of Microbes In Human Health And Diseases

Author: Nar Singh Chauhan
Editor: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 1838802339
File Size: 11,81 MB
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Microbes are ubiquitous and have ecological interactions with almost all life forms. Likewise, humans invariably engage in host-microbial interactions that could induce short-term or long-term effects. Some of these long-term crossover interactions have allowed successful colonization of microbes within or on the human body, collectively known as the human microbiome or human microbiota. The human microbiome is identified as playing a key role in various physiological processes like digestion, immunity, defense, growth, and development. Any dysbiosis in the human microbiome structure could induce the onset of various metabolic or physiological disorders. Cumulatively, the human microbiome is considered as a virtual human organ that is essential for host survival. Additionally, short-term biological interactions of the host and microbes have exposed microbes to the human cellular system. This exposure could have allowed the microbes to invade human cells for their growth and reproduction-induced onset of various infectious diseases. This book incorporates a number of studies highlighting the role of microbes in human health and diseases.

The Gut Microbiome Exploring The Connection Between Microbes Diet And Health

Author: Ana Maria R. Moise
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440842655
File Size: 32,34 MB
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This accessibly written, comprehensive summary of research findings on the gut microbiome and its implications for health and disease—a topic of growing interest and concern—serves as an essential resource for teachers and students. • Presents the most recent gut microbiome research in a way that is accessible to students interested in biological sciences and nutrition studies • Includes engaging sidebars and case studies that serve to better illustrate the connections between gut microbiota, human physiology, and chronic disease • Provides insight into the role of nutrition in shaping the gut microbiota and suggestions for improving human health

Metagenomics Of The Human Body

Author: Karen E. Nelson
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441970893
File Size: 12,58 MB
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The book brings a completely different perspective than available books by combining the information gained from the human genome with that derived from parallel metagenomic studies, and new results from investigating the effects of these microbes on the host immune system. Although there are a number of books that focus on the human genome that are currently available, there are no books that bring to the forefront the mix of the human genome and the genomes and metagenomes of the microbial species that live within and on us.

The Gut Microbiome In Health And Disease

Author: Nathan W. Schmidt
Editor: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288963003X
File Size: 33,46 MB
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Gut Microbiota

Author: Edward Ishiguro
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128105429
File Size: 43,26 MB
Format: PDF
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Gut Microbiota: Interactive Effects on Nutrition and Health provides a detailed account of gut microbiota research, an exploration of how diet influences gut microbiota and the implications of gut microbiota for health. The book provides a summary of how diet interacts with the gut microbiome and presents practical applications focused on food, supplements and safety. This book provides scientists and clinicians who have an interest in the microbiome with an understanding of the future potential—and limitations—of this tool, as they strive to make use of evidence-based diet information for the maintenance of good health. Consolidates new research on how gut microbiota affects nutrition Identifies how the research applies to food, supplements and safety Provides diet recommendations to improve health Includes case studies from clinical populations Explores how diet influences gut microbiota

The Microbiome Interactions With Organ Systems Diet And Genetics An Issue Of Gastroenterology Clinics Of North America Ebook

Author: Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
Editor: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323679013
File Size: 79,12 MB
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In consultation with Consulting Editor, Dr. Alan Buchman, Dr. Rocheyllys Diaz Heijtz has put together a state-of the-art issue of the Gastroenterology Clinics of North America devoted to The Microbiome: Interactions with Organ Systems, Diet, and Genetics. Clinical review articles from expert authors are specifically devoted to the following: The Role of the Microbiome of o the Female Reproductive Tract on Health and Pregnancy; Eating Disorders and the Gut Microbiota; Maturation of the Infant Microbiome Community Structure and Function; Microbe-Host Interactions in Allergic Diseases; Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiota in Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mood Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota and ADHD; The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Postpartum Depression; and The Microbiota and Pancreatic Cancer. Readers will come away with the latest information on the microbiome and how to incorporate the information into gut health for patients.

Microbiome And Cancer

Author: Erle S. Robertson
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030041557
File Size: 76,25 MB
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This book ventures into a new and exciting area of discovery that directly ties our current knowledge of cancer to the discovery of microorganisms associated with different types of cancers. Recent studies demonstrate that microorganisms are directly linked to the establishment of cancers and that they can also contribute to the initiation, as well as persistence of, the cancers. Microbiome and Cancer covers the current knowledge of microbiome and its association with human cancers. It provides important reading for novices, senior undergraduates in cancer and microbiology, graduate students, junior investigators, residents, fellows and established investigators in the fields of cancer and microbiology. We cover areas related to known, broad concepts in microbiology and how they can relate to the ongoing discoveries of the micro-environment and the changes in the metabolic and physiologic states in that micro-environment, which are important for the ongoing nurturing and survival of the poly-microbial content that dictates activities in that micro-environment. We cover the interactions of microorganisms associated with gastric carcinomas, which are important for driving this particular cancer. Additional areas include oral cancers, skin cancers, ovarian cancers, breast cancers, nasopharyngeal cancers, lung cancers, mesotheliomas, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, glioblastoma multiforme, hepatocellular carcinomas, as well as the inflammatory response related to the infectious agents in cancers. This book covers the metabolic changes that occur because of infection and their support for development of cancers, chronic infection and development of therapeutic strategies for detection and control of the infection. The field of microbiome research has exploded over the last five years, and we are now understanding more and more about the context in which microorganisms can contribute to the onset of cancers in humans. The field of microbiome research has demonstrated that the human body has specific biomes for tissues and that changes in these biomes at the specific organ sites can result in disease. These changes can result in dramatic differences in metabolic shifts that, together with genetic mutations, will produce the perfect niche for establishment of the particular infection programmes in that organ site. We are just beginning to understand what those changes are and how they influence the disease state. Overall, we hope to bring together the varying degrees of fluctuations in the microbiome at the major organ sites and how these changes affect the normal cellular processes because of dysregulation, leading to proliferation of the associated tissues.