The Humans Who Went Extinct

Autore: Clive Finlayson
Editore: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199239193
Grandezza: 40,82 MB
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Vista: 5704
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Originally published in hardcover: Oxford; New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 2009.

Extinct Humans

Autore: Head of the Anthropology Department Ian Tattersall
Editore: Westview Press
ISBN:
Grandezza: 70,40 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 228
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Challenging prevailing notions of the evolution of humans, this fascinating study of a controversial topic posits that the human evolutionary tree actually contained many branches, and that some of these groups may have exterminated others. 10,000 first printing.

The Invaders

Autore: Pat Shipman
Editore: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674736761
Grandezza: 16,79 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 2469
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Humans domesticated dogs soon after Neanderthals began to disappear. This alliance between two predator species, Pat Shipman hypothesizes, made possible unprecedented success in hunting large Ice Age mammals—a distinct and ultimately decisive advantage for human invaders at a time when climate change made both humans and Neanderthals vulnerable.

Extinct Animals An Encyclopedia Of Species That Have Disappeared During Human History

Autore: Ross Piper
Editore: Greenwood
ISBN: 0313349886
Grandezza: 37,71 MB
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Vista: 3647
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Everyone is familiar with the dodo and the wooly mammoth, but how many people have heard of the scimitar cat and the Falkland Island fox? Extinct Animals portrays over 60 remarkable animals that have been lost forever during the relatively recent geological past. Each entry provides a concise discussion of the history of the animal—how and where it lived, and how it became extinct—as well as the scientific discovery and analysis of the creature. In addition, this work examines what led to extinction—from the role of cyclical swings in the Earth's climate to the spread of humans and their activities. Many scientists believe that we are in the middle of a mass extinction right now, caused by the human undermining of the earth's complex systems that support life. Understanding what caused the extinction of animals in the past may help us understand and prevent the extinction of species in the future. Extinct Animals examines the biology and history of some of the most interesting creatures that have ever lived, including: The American Terror Bird, which probably became extinct over 1 million years ago, who were massive predators, some of which were almost 10 feet tall; the Rocky Mountain Locust, last seen in 1902, formed the most immense animal aggregations ever known, with swarms estimated to include over 10 trillion insects; the Giant Ground Sloth, which was as large as an elephant; and the Neandertals, the first Europeans, which co-existed with prehistoric Homo sapiens. Extinct Animals includes illustrations—many created for the work—that help the reader visualize the extinct creature, and each entry concludes with a list of resources for those who wish to do further research.

Ice Age Extinction

Autore: Jim Snook
Editore: Algora Publishing
ISBN: 9780875865591
Grandezza: 51,78 MB
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Vista: 676
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Global warming seen from the other side: by the end of the last ice age, the earth had lost most of its large animal species and most of its humans. In a novel approach the author argues that the main cause of this catastrophic extinction was a drastic reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide, due to the long period of cold, and he backs up his theory with scientific explanations given in clear language for the general reader. The author explores the causes of Earth s cyclical temperature changes and shows how those temperature shifts touch off a chain of events in the atmosphere, in the oceans and on land. Cold temperature was the trigger; and the resultant reduction in carbon dioxide, he argues, was the bullet that killed off so many species. The re-warming released more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and fueled a resurgence which we are still enjoying. In addition, the author describes the human responses to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide after the last ice age and in the last 150 years. Near the end of the last ice age, atmospheric carbon dioxide was about half of what it is today. Due to the lack of carbon dioxide, most of the vegetation disappeared from the middle and high latitudes. Without plants to eat, many large animals became extinct; North America lost three-fourths of its large animals including the woolly mammoth, mastodon, and saber tooth cat. Humans, too, had little to eat in these areas and their population declined dramatically. The book then explains how and why atmospheric carbon dioxide increased by about 50% after the last ice age ended, encouraging a population explosion among plants, animals and humans, all of which then migrated into many previously barren areas. More recently, the 28% increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide in the last 150 years has caused a six-fold increase in the human population. Changes in the next 300 years will reverse some of the current trends. There have been some books on the causes of extinction over the last forty years, but all looked at other causes and none examined the role of low atmospheric carbon dioxide. This book has value for anyone interested in the ice age extinction; glaciers; the glacial cycle; the atmosphere and oceans; the past and future of plants, animals, and humans. It provides long-term information on atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming and cooling.

The Smart Neanderthal

Autore: Clive Finlayson
Editore: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192518127
Grandezza: 15,70 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 4771
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Since the late 1980s the dominant theory of human origins has been that a 'cognitive revolution' (C.50,000 years ago) led to the advent of our species, Homo sapiens. As a result of this revolution our species spread and eventually replaced all existing archaic Homo species, ultimately leading to the superiority of modern humans. Or so we thought. As Clive Finlayson explains, the latest advances in genetics prove that there was significant interbreeding between Modern Humans and the Neanderthals. All non-Africans today carry some Neanderthal genes. We have also discovered aspects of Neanderthal behaviour that indicate that they were not cognitively inferior to modern humans, as we once thought, and in fact had their own rituals and art. Finlayson, who is at the forefront of this research, recounts the discoveries of his team, providing evidence that Neanderthals caught birds of prey, and used their feathers for symbolic purposes. There is also evidence that Neanderthals practised other forms of art, as the recently discovered engravings in Gorham's Cave Gibraltar indicate. Linking all the recent evidence, The Smart Neanderthal casts a new light on the Neanderthals and the 'Cognitive Revolution'. Finlayson argues that there was no revolution and, instead, modern behaviour arose gradually and independently among different populations of Modern Humans and Neanderthals. Some practices were even adopted by Modern Humans from the Neanderthals. Finlayson overturns classic narratives of human origins, and raises important questions about who we really are.

The Improbable Primate

Autore: Clive Finlayson
Editore: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191503789
Grandezza: 74,13 MB
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Vista: 8242
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Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.

Species Richness

Autore: Jonathan Adams
Editore: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540742786
Grandezza: 37,72 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 2937
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This is a readable, informative and up-to-date account of the patterns and controls on biodiversity. The author describes major trends in species richness, along with uncertainties in current knowledge. The various possible explanations for past and present species patterns are discussed and explained in an even-handed and accessible way. The implications of global climate change and habitat loss are considered, along with current strategies for preserving what we have. This book examines the state of current understanding of species richness patterns and their explanations. As well as the present day world, it deals with diversification and extinction, in the conservation of species richness, and the difficulties of assessing how many species remain to be discovered. The scientifically compelling subject of vegetation-climate interaction is considered in depth. Written in an accessible style, the author offers an up-to-date, rigorous and yet eminently comprehensible overview of the ecology and biogeography of species richness. He departs from the often heavy approach of earlier texts, without sacrificing rigor and depth of information and analysis. Prefacing with the aims of the book, Chapter 1 opens with an explanation of latitudinal gradients, including a description of major features of the striking gradients in species richness, exceptions to the rule, explanations, major theories and field and experimental tests. The following chapter plumbs the depth of time, including the nature of the fossil record, broad timescale diversity patterns, ecosystem changes during mass extinctions and glaciations and their influence on species richness. Chapters 3 and 4 consider hotspots and local scale patterns in species richness while Chapter 5 looks at the limitations and uncertainties on current estimates of richness, the last frontiers of species diversity and the process of identifying new life forms. The last three chapters cover humans and extinctions in history and prehistory, current habitat and global change, including the greenhouse effect, and the race to preserve what we still have, including parks, gene banks and laws.

The Last Human

Autore: Lee Bacon
Editore: Bonnier Zaffre Ltd.
ISBN: 1848128258
Grandezza: 28,10 MB
Formato: PDF, Docs
Vista: 9358
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An unlikely friendship. A dangerous voyage. A story about what it means to be human. Humans went extinct thirty years ago. Now the world is ruled by machines. And twelve-year-old robot XR_935 is just fine with that. Without humans around, there is no war, no pollution, no crime. Every member of society has a purpose. Everything runs smoothly and efficiently. Until the day XR discovers something impossible. Until the day XR discovers a twelve-year-old human.

The Next Species

Autore: Michael Tennesen
Editore: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451677537
Grandezza: 79,78 MB
Formato: PDF, Kindle
Vista: 9173
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“Simultaneously sobering and exhilarating, Michael Tennesen’s wide-ranging survey of disasters highlights both life’s fragility and its metamorphosing persistence” (Booklist) and describes what life on earth could look like after the next mass extinction. A growing number of scientists agree we are headed toward a mass extinction, perhaps in as little as 300 years. Already there have been five mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, including the Cretaceous Extinction, during which an asteroid knocked out the dinosaurs. Though these events were initially destructive, they were also prime movers of evolutionary change in nature. And we can see some of the warning signs of another extinction event coming, as our oceans lose both fish and oxygen, and our lands lose both predators and prey. In The Next Species, Michael Tennesen questions what life might be like after it happens. In thoughtful, provocative ways, Tennesen discusses the future of nature and whether humans will make it through the bottleneck of extinction. Could life suddenly get very big as it did before the arrival of humans? Could the conquest of Mars lead to another form of human? Could we upload our minds into a computer and live in a virtual reality? How would we recognize the next humans? Are they with us now? Tennesen delves into the history of the planet and travels to rainforests, canyons, craters, and caves all over the world to explore the potential winners and losers of the next era of evolution. His predictions, based on reports and interviews with top scientists, have vital implications for life on earth today. The Next Species is “an engrossing history of life, the dismal changes wrought by man, and a forecast of life after the sixth mass extinction” (Kirkus Reviews).

The Human Story

Autore: Charles Lockwood
Editore: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.
ISBN: 9781402757471
Grandezza: 47,35 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 5851
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Anthropology professor Charles Lockwood tells the amazing story of human evolution in a concise and compelling introduction to all our ancestors and extinct relatives. He draws on the explosion of discoveries made over the past 20 years to demystify the fascinating cast of characters who hold the secret to our origins, and describes the main sites, individual fossils, key scientific breakthroughs, and latest research that have fed our knowledge. With the help of a rich assortment of photographs, reconstructions, and maps, Lockwood takes us from the earliest hominins, who date back six or seven million years ago, to contemporary homo sapiens, providing the basic facts about each species: what it looked like, what it ate, how and when it lives, and how we know this information. Created in association with London’s Natural History Museum, this is a truly readable, up-to-date, well-illustrated, and user-friendly summary of the evidence as it stands today.

Masters Of The Planet

Autore: Ian Tattersall
Editore: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1137000384
Grandezza: 21,52 MB
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Vista: 3578
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50,000 years ago – merely a blip in evolutionary time – our Homo sapiens ancestors were competing for existence with several other human species, just as their own precursors had been doing for millions of years. Yet something about our species separated it from the pack, and led to its survival while the rest became extinct. So just what was it that allowed Homo sapiens to become Masters of the Planet? Curator Emeritus at the American Museum of Natural History, Ian Tattersall takes us deep into the fossil record to uncover what made humans so special. Surveying a vast field from initial bipedality to language and intelligence, Tattersall argues that Homo sapiens acquired a winning combination of traits that was not the result of long term evolutionary refinement. Instead it emerged quickly, shocking their world and changing it forever.

The Solar Revolution

Autore: Steve McKevitt
Editore: Icon Books Ltd
ISBN: 1848317875
Grandezza: 50,74 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 5262
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It’s an astonishing fact that capturing all the energy in just one hour’s worth of sunlight would enable us to meet the planet’s food and energy needs for an entire year. The Solar Revolution tells the story of how scientists are working to reconnect us to the ‘solar economy’, harnessing the power of the sun to provide sustainable food and energy for a global population of 10 billion people: an achievement that would end our dependence on ‘fossilised sunshine’ in the form of coal, oil and gas and remake our connection with the soil that grows our food. Steve McKevitt and Tony Ryan describe the human race’s complex relationship with the sun and take us back through history to see how our world became the place it is today – chemically, geologically, ecologically, climatically and economically – before moving on to the cutting-edge science and technology that will enable us to live happily in a sustainable future.

The Global Prehistory Of Human Migration

Autore: Immanuel Ness
Editore: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118970586
Grandezza: 39,92 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 5015
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Previously published as the first volume of The Encyclopediaof Global Human Migration, this work is devoted exclusively toprehistoric migration, covering all periods and places from thefirst hominin migrations out of Africa through the end ofprehistory. Presents interdisciplinary coverage of this topic, includingscholarship from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, genetics,biology, linguistics, and more Includes contributions from a diverse international team ofauthors, representing 17 countries and a variety ofdisciplines Divided into two sections, covering the Pleistocene andHolocene; each section examines human migration through chaptersthat focus on different regional and disciplinary lenses

The Human Evolution Cookbook

Autore: Harold L. Dibble
Editore: UPenn Museum of Archaeology
ISBN: 9781931707497
Grandezza: 57,20 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub
Vista: 8225
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This humorous account of human evolution, from the beginnings of bipedalism through the Upper Paleolithic, is set in the context of a cookbook, with recipes and cartoons to match the unfolding stories. Each chapter discusses a particular milestone or event in human development, and a dash of prehistory, a sprinkling of recipes, and a generous helping of humor painlessly lighten the professorial instruction. From leading us to understand the first tool makers to showing us how to prepare a Neanderthal dinner party at the site of the authors' most recent excavations in Pech de l'Aze in France's Dordogne Valley near the town of Sarlat, this book presents archaeology as never before.

The Emergence And Nature Of Human History Volume One

Autore: Joseph Miller
Editore: Lulu.com
ISBN: 1300029323
Grandezza: 21,55 MB
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Vista: 4057
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This book attempts to define the issues that face us in trying to understand the often-overwhelming complexity of the human experience. It is intellectually challenging, broad in its scope, richly detailed, and densely argued. It is the first in a projected series of five volumes in which the author will seek to touch on every aspect of human historical reality and all the multitudinous variables that have shaped it.

The Human Impact On The Natural Environment

Autore: Andrew S. Goudie
Editore: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118578252
Grandezza: 45,78 MB
Formato: PDF, Mobi
Vista: 6896
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The seventh edition of this classic student text explores the multitude of impacts that humans have had over time upon vegetation, animals, soils, water, landforms and the atmosphere. It also looks into the future and considers the ways in which climate changes and modifications in land cover may change the environment in coming decades. Extensively re-written, it contains many new statistical tables, figures, and references. It is essential reading for undergraduates in geography and environmental science, and for those who want a thorough, wide-ranging and balanced overview of the impacts of humans upon natural processes and systems from the Stone Age to the Anthropocene and who wish to understand the major environmental issues that concern the human race at the present time. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/goudiehumanimpact.

Human Biology

Autore: Sara Stinson
Editore: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118108043
Grandezza: 48,31 MB
Formato: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Vista: 4107
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This comprehensive introduction to the field of human biology covers all the major areas of the field: genetic variation, variation related to climate, infectious and non-infectious diseases, aging, growth, nutrition, and demography. Written by four expert authors working in close collaboration, this second edition has been thoroughly updated to provide undergraduate and graduate students with two new chapters: one on race and culture and their ties to human biology, and the other a concluding summary chapter highlighting the integration and intersection of the topics covered in the book.

From Monkeys To Men To What Inquiring Minds Want To Know Is Science Pointing To Human S As The Next Major Zoo Attraction A Preposterously Essential Science Lesson According To A Darn Good Ex Chicken Farmer

Autore: Alvin Allison
Editore: Lulu Press, Inc
ISBN: 1304567273
Grandezza: 15,69 MB
Formato: PDF
Vista: 3607
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Disgruntled at the teaching of evolution? Then sit back awhile and laugh at it. Consider evolution's magic wand, natural selection. According to theory, natural selection can take a fish fin and turn it into a frog leg. It can take a lizard and suit it up with a pair of wings. It can take a monkey and make a man out of it. The question is though; if natural selection really can move a monkey into a cave by destroying its incredible climbing abilities, what might natural selection end up doing to some of us humans? No doubt, scientists have made many startling discoveries concerning the human anatomy in recent years, discoveries scientists themselves don't understand. Could these mysterious discoveries hold the answers to what the future holds for the human race? Find out what these discoveries are and draw your own conclusions.

Anthropology And The Human Subject

Autore: Brian Morris
Editore: Trafford Publishing
ISBN: 1490731040
Grandezza: 47,94 MB
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Vista: 7844
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The German philosopher Immanuel Kant famously defined anthropology as the study of what it means to be a human being. Following in his footsteps "Anthropology and the Human Subject" provides a critical, comprehensive and wide-ranging investigation of conceptions of the human subject within the Western intellectual tradition, focusing specifically on the secular trends of the twentieth century. Encyclopaedic in scope, lucidly and engagingly written, the book covers the man and varied currents of thought within this tradition. Each chapter deals with a specific intellectual paradigm, ranging from Marx's historical materialism and Darwin's evolutionary naturalism, and their various off shoots, through to those currents of though that were prominent in the late twentieth century, such as, for example, existentialism, hermeneutics, phenomenology and poststructuralism. With respect to each current of thought a focus is placed on their main exemplars, outlining their biographical context, their mode of social analysis, and the "ontology of the subject" that emerges from their key texts. The book will appeal not only to anthropologists but to students and scholars within the human sciences and philosophy, as well as to any person interested in the question: What does it mean to be human? "Ambitions in scope and encyclopaedic in execution...his style is always lucid. He makes difficult work accessible. His prose conveys the unmistakable impression of a superb and meticulous lecturer at work." Anthony P Cohen Journal Royal Anthropological Institute "There is a very little I can add to the outstanding criticism Brian Morris levels at deep ecology...Insightful as well as incisive...I have found his writings an educational experience." Murray Bookchin Institute of Social Ecology