The Pragmatics Of Politeness

Author: Geoffrey N. Leech
Editor: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019534135X
File Size: 56,24 MB
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This readable book presents a new general theoretical understanding of politeness. It offers an account of a wide range of politeness phenomena in English, illustrated by hundreds of examples of actual language use taken largely from authentic British and American sources. Building on his earlier pioneering work on politeness, Geoffrey Leech takes a pragmatic approach that is based on the controversial notion that politeness is communicative altruism. Leech's 1983 book, Principles of Pragmatics, introduced the now widely-accepted distinction between pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic aspects of politeness; this book returns to the pragmalinguistic side, somewhat neglected in recent work. Drawing on neo-Gricean thinking, Leech rejects the prevalent view that it is impossible to apply the terms 'polite' or 'impolite' to linguistic phenomena.Leech covers all major speech acts that are either positively or negatively associated with politeness, such as requests, apologies, compliments, offers, criticisms, good wishes, condolences, congratulations, agreement, and disagreement. Additional chapters deal with impoliteness and the related phenomena of irony ("mock politeness") and banter ("mock impoliteness"), and with the role of politeness in the learning of English as a second language. A final chapter takes a fascinating look at more than a thousand years of history of politeness in the English language.Readership: Graduate students and researchers in linguistics (especially sociolinguistics) as well those in sociology, social psychology, and anthropology.

Language And Social Relationship In Brazilian Portuguese

Author: Dale April Koike
Editor: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292768990
File Size: 51,88 MB
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"Give me the salt" and "Please pass the salt" make the same request, but in a polite situation the first utterance may give offense, while the second may not. How and why such differences in wording and intonation, in a particular context, produce different effects is the concern of pragmatics, the area of linguistics that deals with how speech is used in interaction. In this innovative study of pragmatics in Brazilian Portuguese, Dale Koike analyzes the politeness phenomenon, specifically in the context of speech acts known as "directives." As acts intended to get someone to do something, directives bring into play a variety of sociocultural factors, depending on the relationship between the participants. Using empirical data obtained through natural language observation and from questionnaires of over one hundred adult native speakers, Koike identifies factors—such as age, education, and gender—that influence the strategies of politeness a given speaker is likely to use in making a directive. This research clarifies the unwritten language rules and assumptions that native speakers intuitively follow in phrasing their directive utterances. Koike also includes important material on the acquisition of strategies for politeness by children and adult second-language learners, as well as on gender differences in politeness forms. Her research proposes important additions to the theory of speech acts as conceived by Austin and Searle, particularly in the application of deictic organization to account for a hierarchy of pragmatic forms. Language and Social Relationship in Brazilian Portuguese will be of interest to a wide audience in diverse fields, including linguistics, anthropology, interaction analysis, communications, semantics, sociology, psychology, and education.

The Pragmatics Of Politeness In Scientific Articles

Author: Greg Myers
File Size: 25,94 MB
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Principles Of Pragmatics

Author: Geoffrey N. Leech
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317869478
File Size: 33,73 MB
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Over the years, pragmatics - the study of the use and meaning of utterances to their situations - has become a more and more important branch of linguistics, as the inadequacies of a purely formalist, abstract approach to the study of language have become more evident. This book presents a rhetorical model of pragmatics: that is, a model which studies linguistic communication in terms of communicative goals and principles of 'good communicative behaviour'. In this respect, Geoffrey Leech argues for a rapprochement between linguistics and the traditional discipline of rhetoric. He does not reject the Chomskvan revolution of linguistics, but rather maintains that the language system in the abstract - i.e. the 'grammar' broadly in Chomsky's sense - must be studied in relation to a fully developed theory of language use. There is therefore a division of labour between grammar and rhetoric, or (in the study of meaning) between semantics and pragmatics. The book's main focus is thus on the development of a model of pragmatics within an overall functional model of language. In this it builds on the speech avct theory of Austin and Searle, and the theory of conversational implicature of Grice, but at the same time enlarges pragmatics to include politeness, irony, phatic communion, and other social principles of linguistic behaviour.

On Apologising In Negative And Positive Politeness Cultures

Author: Eva Ogiermann
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027254354
File Size: 80,55 MB
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This book investigates how speakers of English, Polish and Russian deal with offensive situations. It reveals culture-specific perceptions of what counts as an apology and what constitutes politeness. It offers a critical discussion of Brown and Levinson's theory and provides counterevidence to the correlation between indirectness and politeness underlying their theory. Their theory is applied to two languages that rely less heavily on indirectness in conveying politeness than does English, and to a speech act that does not become more polite through indirectness. An analysis of the face considerations involved in apologising shows that in contrast to disarming apologies, remedial apologies are mainly directed towards positive face needs, which are crucial for the restoration of social equilibrium and maintenance of relationships. The data show that while English apologies are characterised by a relatively strong focus on both interlocutors negative face, Polish apologies display a particular concern for positive face. For Russian speakers, in contrast, apologies seem to involve a lower degree of face threat than they do in the other two languages."

Gender Politeness And Pragmatic Particles In French

Author: Kate Beeching
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9781588112569
File Size: 52,75 MB
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This study aims to investigate politeness in women s and men s speech, with a particular focus on the use of "c est-a-dire, enfin, hein "and "quoi "in contemporary spoken French." "Politeness is defined as going beyond the notion of the face-threatening act, englobing both everyday ideas of politeness and the creation of sociability in face-to-face interaction.The pragmatic particles studied are demonstrated to serve both psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic purposes: they lubricate reformulation and contribute to both sociability and social indexation.The study, which combines qualitative and quantitative analysis, is based on a corpus of spontaneous spoken French, comprising 155,000 words, 95 interviews and subjects ranging in age from 7 to 88 years. The sample contains speakers from a broader range of educational backgrounds than is often the case: a butcher, a video-salesman and a "toiletteur canin" rub shoulders with counter assistants, teachers and doctors.

Current Trends In The Pragmatics Of Spanish

Author: Rosina Márquez-Reiter
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9781588115201
File Size: 12,57 MB
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"Current Trends in the Pragmatics of Spanish" provides the reader with a representative spectrum of current research in the most dynamic areas of the pragmatics of Spanish. It brings together a collection of academic essays written by well-established as well as emerging voices in Hispanic pragmatics. The essays include applications of pragmatic concepts to sub-fields of (Spanish) linguistics (i.e., pragmatics and grammar; pragmatics and applied linguistics; pragmatics and cross- and inter-cultural communication), studies of traditional topics in pragmatics (i.e., discourse markers, politeness, metaphor, humour) as well as a proposal to amalgamate the dominant pragmatic approaches, namely socio-pragmatics and cognitive pragmatics, into one comprehensive model. The essays in this collection represent both new theoretical and empirical research and as such they constitute a valuable contribution to the field of pragmatics in general and an essential reference to those researching the pragmatics of Spanish.

The Pragmatics Of Translation

Author: Leo Hickey
Editor: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 9781853594045
File Size: 79,44 MB
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Pragmatics, often defined as the study of language use and language users, sets out to explain what people wish to achieve and how they go about achieving it in using language. Such a study is clearly of direct relevance to an understanding of translation and translators. The thirteen chapters in this volume show how translation - skill, art, process and product - is affected by pragmatic factors such as the acts performed by people when they use language, how writers try to be polite, relevant and cooperative, the distinctions they make between what their readers may already know and what is likely to be new to them, what is presupposed and what is openly affirmed, time and space, how they refer to things and make their discourse coherent, how issues may be hedged or attempts made to produce in readers of the translation effects equivalent to those stimulated in readers of the original. Particular attention is paid to legal, political, humorous, poetic and other literary texts.

Politeness In Language

Author: Richard J. Watts
Editor: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110199815
File Size: 41,80 MB
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The second edition of this collection of 13 original papers contains an updated introductory section detailing the significance that the original articles published in 1992 have for the further development of research into linguistic politeness into the 21st century. The original articles focus on the phenomenon of politeness in language. They present the most important problems in developing a theory of linguistic politeness, which must deal with the crucial differences between lay notions of politeness in different cultures and the term 'politeness' as a concept within a theory of linguistic politeness. The universal validity of the term itself is called into question, as are models such as those developed by Brown and Levinson, Lakoff, and Leech. New approaches are suggested. In addition to this theoretical discussion, an empirical section presents a number of case studies and research projects in linguistic politeness. These show what has been achieved within current models and what still remains to be done, in particular with reference to cross-cultural studies in politeness and differences between a Western and a non-Western approach to the subject. The publication of this second edition demonstrates that the significance of the collection is just as salient in the first decade of the new millennium as it was at the beginning of the 1990s.

Historical Im Politeness

Author: Jonathan Culpeper
Editor: Peter Lang
ISBN: 9783039114962
File Size: 54,49 MB
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This edited collection investigates historical linguistic politeness and impoliteness. Although some research has been undertaken uniting politeness and historical pragmatics, it has been sporadic at best, and often limited to traditional theoretical approaches. This is a strange state of affairs, because politeness plays a central role in the social dynamics of language. This collection, containing contributions from renowned experts, aims to fill this hiatus, bringing together cutting-edge research. Not only does it illuminate the language usage of earlier periods, but by examining the past it places politeness today in context. Such a diachronic perspective also affords a further test-bed for current models of politeness. This volume provides insights into historical aspects of language, particularly items regularly deployed for politeness functions, and the social, particularly interpersonal, contexts with which it interacts. It also sheds light on how (social) meanings are dynamically constructed in situ, and probes various theoretical aspects of politeness. Its papers deploy a range of multilingual (e.g. English, Spanish, Italian and Chinese) diachronic data drawn from different genres such as letters, dramas, witch trials and manners books.

Linguistic Politeness In Britain And Uruguay

Author: Rosina Márquez-Reiter
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027251022
File Size: 23,63 MB
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The first well-researched contrastive pragmatic analysis of requests and apologies in British English and Uruguayan Spanish. It takes the form of a cross-cultural corpus-based analysis using male and female native speakers of each language and systematically alternating the same social variables in both cultures. The data are elicited from a non-prescriptive open role-play yielding requests and apologies. The analysis of the speech acts is based on an adaptation of the categorical scheme developed by Blum-Kulka et al. (1989). The results show that speakers of English and Spanish differ in their choice of (in)directness levels, head-act modifications, and the politeness types of males and females in both cultures. Reference to an extensive bibliography and the thorough discussion of methodological issues concerning speech act studies deserve the attention of students of pragmatics as well as readers interested in cultural matters.

New Perspectives On Im Politeness And Interpersonal Communication

Author: Lucis Fernández Amaya
Editor: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443844357
File Size: 74,68 MB
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New Perspectives on (Im)Politeness and Interpersonal Communication gathers eleven studies by prominent scholars, which explore issues related to (im)politeness in human communication. The study of linguistic (im)politeness is undoubtedly one of the central concerns in the field of pragmatics, as attested to by the numerous conferences and journals currently dedicated to the topic, the various theoretical models and approaches developed or developing so far, and the seemingly endless list of insightful and inspiring empirical studies tackling the topic from a wide variety of angles. This volume contributes to the subfield of social pragmatics by putting together works that review the state of the art of (im)politeness studies, analysing (im)politeness in media contexts like the Internet or dubbed films and other contexts, looking into the effects and consequences of some speech acts for social interaction, drawing implications for language teaching, and approaching some of the linguistic mechanisms which help to communicate (im)politeness. Resulting from the efforts made by specialists in the field, the chapters in this volume offer additional evidence that examining the complexity of interpersonal communication from different standpoints can benefit a more complete understanding of social interaction in general. Their scope and practical applications demonstrate the transversality and versatility of interpersonal communication. The editors hope that these works will retain scholars’ interest and attention for some time to come and spark off further research.

Pragmatics And The 2000 U S Elections Issues Of Politeness And Power In Political Campaign Debates

Author: María D. García Pastor
Editor: Universitat de València
ISBN: 9788437047256
File Size: 38,81 MB
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Speech Acts And Politeness In French As A Pluricentric Language

Author: Bernard Mulo Farenkia
Editor: LIT Verlag Münster
ISBN: 3643904568
File Size: 61,39 MB
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This book is a contribution to the growing body of research in variational pragmatics and in postcolonial pragmatics, two emergent frameworks in cross-cultural pragmatics. Variational pragmatics studies pragmatic phenomena in regional varieties of the same language from a comparative perspective. Postcolonial pragmatics examines patterns of pragmatic phenomena in postcolonial spaces. The study focuses on the realization patterns of compliments and compliment responses and politeness strategies used in performing both speech acts in Cameroon French and in Canadian French. (Series: Romanistische Linguistik / Romance Linguistics - Vol. 10)

Teaching And Learning Im Politeness

Author: Barbara Pizziconi
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1501501658
File Size: 16,26 MB
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This collection combines research from the field of (im)politeness studies with research on language pedagogy and language learning. It aims to engender a useful dialogue between (im)politeness theorists, language teachers, and SLA researchers, and also to broaden the enquiry to naturalistic contexts other than L2 acquisition classrooms, by formulating 'teaching' and 'learning' as processes of socialization, cultural transmission, and adaptation.


Author: Penelope Brown
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521313551
File Size: 49,64 MB
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This book studies the principles for constructing polite speeches, based on the detailed study of three unrelated languages and cultures.

Intercultural Pragmatics

Author: Istvan Kecskes
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199892652
File Size: 39,47 MB
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In Intercultural Pragmatics, the first book on the subject, Istvan Kecskes establishes the foundations of the field, boldly combining the pragmatic view of cooperation with the cognitive view of egocentrism in order to incorporate emerging features of communication.

Pragmatics And Classical Sanskrit

Author: Lieve Van De Walle
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027250405
File Size: 68,83 MB
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This book explores the possibilities and limitations of pragmatic research in classical Sanskrit concentrating on linguistic politeness. The four case studies it comprises are in essence empirical, and try to accurately describe a fairly limited number of interactions between an also limited number of people. The underlying assumption is that a micro-analysis yields recognizable patterns of communicative styles and that these generalizations improve our insight in the workings of politeness (deference) in this language and in languages in general. This book also shows that the relation between classical languages and pragmatics is not necessarily a one-way street. The data provide ample evidence that a detailed text study offers rich opportunities both to supplement experimental studies (e.g. the Cross-Cultural Speech Act Realization Project) and to evaluate existing pragmatic theories constructed on the basis of contemporary languages.


Author: Siobhan Chapman
Editor: Macmillan International Higher Education
ISBN: 0230345190
File Size: 35,78 MB
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'This is a beautifully clear and wide-ranging introduction to pragmatics, dealing even-handedly with a good variety of theories and situating the discipline in its historical and intellectual context' - Professor Noel Burton-Roberts, Newcastle University This accessible and engaging text introduces the field of pragmatics, the study of the relationship between linguistic meaning and context. Assuming no prior knowledge, Siobhan Chapman surveys the development of pragmatics from the very beginning to the present day, and engages with many of the most recent debates in the field, including topics such as experimental pragmatics and (im)politeness theory. This highly-readable text focuses on core theoretical pragmatics, but also considers how pragmatics has been applied to the study of various aspects of language in use, such as literature, language acquisition and clinical linguistics. Each chapter concludes with useful suggestions for further reading, including both primary and secondary sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Pragmatics goes beyond an introduction, encouraging readers at all levels to understand and engage with the very latest issues and ideas.

The Pragmatics Of Irish English

Author: Anne Barron
Editor: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110898934
File Size: 69,65 MB
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Irish English, while having been the focus of investigations on a variety of linguistic levels, reveals a dearth of research on the pragmatic level. In the present volume, this imbalance is addressed by providing much-needed empirical data on language use in Ireland in the private, official and public spheres and also by examining the use of Irish English as a reflection of socio-cultural norms of interaction. The contributions cover a wide range of pragmatic phenomena and draw on a number of frameworks of analysis. Despite the wide scope of topics and methodologies, a relatively coherent picture of conventions of language use in Ireland emerges. Indirectness and heterogeneity on the formal level are, for instance, shown to be features of Irish English. This volume is the first book-length treatment of the pragmatics of a national variety of English, or any other language. Indeed, it could be considered a first step towards a new discipline, variational pragmatics, at the interface of pragmatics and dialectology. This book is of primary interest to researchers and students in pragmatics, variational linguistics, Irish English, English as Foreign Language (EFL), cross-cultural communication and discourse analysis. Furthermore, the pragmatic descriptions provided will be of practical use in the increasingly important English as Second Language (ESL) context in Ireland. Finally, it is also of relevance to professionals dealing with Ireland and, indeed, to anyone interested in a deeper understanding of Irish culture.