The Scientist S Atom And The Philosopher S Stone

Author: Alan Chalmers
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048123623
Size: 13,92 MB
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Drawing on the results of his own scholarly research as well as that of others the author offers, for the first time, a comprehensive and documented history of theories of the atom from Democritus to the twentieth century. This is not history for its own sake. By critically reflecting on the various versions of atomic theories of the past the author is able to grapple with the question of what sets scientific knowledge apart from other kinds of knowledge, philosophical knowledge in particular. He thereby engages historically with issues concerning the nature and status of scientific knowledge that were dealt with in a more abstract way in his What Is This Thing Called Science?, a book that has been a standard text in philosophy of science for three decades and which is available in nineteen languages. Speculations about the fundamental structure of matter from Democritus to the seventeenth-century mechanical philosophers and beyond are construed as categorically distinct from atomic theories amenable to experimental investigation and support and as contributing little to the latter from a historical point of view. The thesis will provoke historians and philosophers of science alike and will require a revision of a range of standard views in the history of science and philosophy. The book is key reading for students and scholars in History and Philosophy of Science and will be instructive for and provide a challenge to philosophers, historians and scientists more generally.

Matter And Method In The Long Chemical Revolution

Author: Dr Victor D Boantza
Editor: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472403983
Size: 15,98 MB
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The seventeenth-century scientific revolution and the eighteenth-century chemical revolution are rarely considered together, either in general histories of science or in more specific surveys of early modern science or chemistry. This tendency arises from the long-held view that the rise of modern physics and the emergence of modern chemistry comprise two distinct and unconnected episodes in the history of science. Although chemistry was deeply transformed during and between both revolutions, the scientific revolution is traditionally associated with the physical and mathematical sciences whereas modern chemistry is seen as the exclusive product of the chemical revolution. This historiographical tension, between similarity in ‘form’ and disparity in historical ‘content’ of the two events, has tainted the way we understand the rise of modern chemistry as an integral part of the advent of modern science. Against this background, Matter and Method in the Long Chemical Revolution examines the role of and effects on chemistry of both revolutions in parallel, using chemistry during the chemical revolution to illuminate chemistry during the scientific revolution, and vice versa. Focusing on the crises and conflicts of early modern chemistry (and their retrospectively labeled ‘losing’ parties), the author traces patterns of continuity in matter theory and experimental method from Boyle to Lavoisier, and reevaluates the disciplinary relationships between chemists, mechanists, and Newtonians in France, England, and Scotland. Adopting a unique approach to the study of the scientific and chemical revolutions, and to early modern chemical thought and practice in particular, the author challenges the standard revolution-centered history of early modern science, and reinterprets the rise of chemistry as an independent discipline in the long eighteenth century.

What Is This Thing Called Science

Author: Alan Chalmers
Editor: Univ. of Queensland Press
ISBN: 0702250872
Size: 19,53 MB
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Every ten years, Alan Chalmers draws on his experience as a teacher and researcher to improve and update the text that strives to answer the philosophical question in it’s title: What is This Thing Called Science? Identifying the qualitative difference between knowledge of atoms as it figures in contemporary science and metaphysical speculations about atoms common in philosophy since the time of Democritus proves to be a highly revealing and instructive way to pinpoint key features of the answer to that question. The most significant feature of this fourth edition is the extensive postscript, in which Chalmers uses the results of his recent research on the history of atomism to illustrate and enliven key themes in the philosophy of science. This new edition ensures that the book holds its place as the leading introduction to the philosophy of science for the foreseeable future.

Error And Inference

Author: Deborah G. Mayo
Editor: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139485369
Size: 10,57 MB
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Although both philosophers and scientists are interested in how to obtain reliable knowledge in the face of error, there is a gap between their perspectives that has been an obstacle to progress. By means of a series of exchanges between the editors and leaders from the philosophy of science, statistics and economics, this volume offers a cumulative introduction connecting problems of traditional philosophy of science to problems of inference in statistical and empirical modelling practice. Philosophers of science and scientific practitioners are challenged to reevaluate the assumptions of their own theories - philosophical or methodological. Practitioners may better appreciate the foundational issues around which their questions revolve and thereby become better 'applied philosophers'. Conversely, new avenues emerge for finally solving recalcitrant philosophical problems of induction, explanation and theory testing.

Teaching Primary Science

Author: Peter Loxley
Editor: Pearson Education
ISBN: 9781405873987
Size: 16,98 MB
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Primary Science: Promoting positive attitudes to conceptual learningis a full colour, core textbook to support, inform and inspire anyone training to teach Science at primary level. This book is a new kind of text linking subject knowledge and pedagogy in one package, rather than treating them as separate entities. The text aims to encourage trainee teachers to teach scientific concepts in contexts which will inspire the children to look at the world in new and intriguing ways, rather than presenting it as a list of facts and definitions. Encouraging critical reflection and offering practical support, this book will help trainee teachers to overcome negative attitudes to Science. The two part structure of the book first presents insights into the nature of science and science education, exploring issues such as the value and purpose of teaching Science in the primary school and the value of scientific enquiry. It then moves on to cover subject knowledge, relating it to pedagogy.

Discovering Atoms

Author: Natalie Goldstein
Editor: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 1448847001
Size: 13,19 MB
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Provides a history of atoms, explores the properties and laws of chemicals, and discusses the new subatomic particles.

The Ascent Of Science

Author: Brian L. Silver
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198027690
Size: 17,21 MB
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From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science. In the readable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; he locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--and especially those perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now" in his Preface, The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

The Natural Philosophy Of Margaret Cavendish

Author: Lisa T. Sarasohn
Editor: JHU Press
ISBN: 0801894433
Size: 10,72 MB
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Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, led a remarkable—and controversial—life, writing poetry and prose and philosophizing on the natural world at a time when women were denied any means of a formal education. Lisa T. Sarasohn acutely examines the brilliant work of this untrained mind and explores the unorthodox development of her natural philosophy. Cavendish wrote copiously on such wide-ranging topics as gender, power, manners, scientific method, and animal rationality. The first woman to publish her own natural philosophy, Cavendish was not afraid to challenge the new science and even ridiculed the mission of the Royal Society. Her philosophy reflected popular culture and engaged with the most radical philosophies of her age. To understand Cavendish’s scientific thought, Sarasohn explains, is to understand the reception of new knowledge through both insider and outsider perspectives in early modern England. In close readings of Cavendish’s writings—poetry, treatises, stories, plays, romances, and letters—Sarasohn explores the fantastic and gendered elements of her natural philosophy. Cavendish saw knowledge as a continuum between reason and fancy, and her work integrated imaginative speculation and physical science. Because she was denied the university education available to her male counterparts, she embraced an epistemology that favored contemplation and intuition over logic and empiricism. The Natural Philosophy of Margaret Cavendish serves as a guide to the unusual and complex philosophy of one of the seventeenth century’s most intriguing minds. It not only celebrates Cavendish as a true figure of the scientific age but also contributes to a broader understanding of the contested nature of the scientific revolution.

Atomic Spaces

Author: Peter Bacon Hales
Editor: University of Illinois Press
ISBN: 9780252068317
Size: 10,12 MB
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Code-named the Manhattan Project, the detailed plans for developing an atomic bomb were impelled by urgency and shrouded in secrecy. This book tells the story of the project's three key sites: Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, New Mexico.

The Science Of Heroes

Author: Yvonne Carts-Powell
Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 1440638098
Size: 13,42 MB
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A fun, fact-filled examination of the science (or lack thereof) behind the hit television series Heroes. Ordinary people with extraordinary powers populate the world of the hit television show Heroes, where characters exhibit such abilities as flight, telepathy, tissue regeneration, prognostication, invisibility, and teleportation through space and time. The Science of Heroes explores these superpowers and many more through real-world research into the potential of human physical and mental capabilities. Citing the work of renowned scientists and engineers, Yvonne Carts-Powell reveals that even the least likely of powers has been studied?and in some cases, even developed. From the wonders found in nature and cutting-edge technological achievements to the latest discoveries in genetics and mutations, humanity might just possess the knowledge to achieve the extraordinary.