The Somatotrophic Axis In Brain Function

Author: Fred Nyberg
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080498167
Size: 11,63 MB
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The somatotropic axis is one of the major hormonal systems regulating postnatal growth in mammals. It interacts with the central nervous system on several levels. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors are expressed in many brain areas including the hippocampus, pituitary and hypothalamus. GH and IGF-I are important factors in the development and differentiation of the CNS and have protective properties in dementia, as well as in traumatic and ischaemic injury of the CNS. Also GH has an important impact on mood and well-being with GH secretory capacity being reduced in depression. This volume will include chapters (1) on basic knowledge on GH/IGF-1, (2) on localization of GH/IGF-1 and their receptors in the CNS, including blood brain barrier transport of both hormones, (3) on actions of the two hormones on CNS function (basic science), (4) on clinical aspects of GH/IGF-1 in relation to various CNS functions and disorders, and finally (5) on some future perspectives in this area of science. Contents are well balanced and cover a variety of relevant topics from basic to clinical research International selection of authors, with a good representation of the research on growth hormones A timely publication which will be useful to scientists in both basic and clinical research

New Concepts Of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity

Author: Hari Shanker Sharma
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080922904
Size: 10,41 MB
Format: PDF
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Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.

Growth Hormone Therapy In Pediatrics

Author: Michael B. Ranke
Editor: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3805582560
Size: 11,53 MB
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For 20 years, KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database) has provided an outstanding tool for monitoring the use, efficacy and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with short stature of varying origin. This volume offers a comprehensive update of the continuing experiences in KIGS and is based on data from more than 50 countries and more than 60,000 patients. International experts analyse in detail the basic auxological characteristics of patients and their response to GH treatment for a broad spectrum of growth disorders. These include idiopathic GH deficiency, organic GH deficiency due to a variety of causes such as congenital malformations and syndromes, genetic disorders or treatment for leukaemia or central nervous system tumours and short stature in children born small for gestational age, specific syndromes and systemic disorders. Each growth disorder is also covered by a review of relevant published data by international experts. KIGS has also established itself as a primary source of information about adverse events during long-term GH treatment in children. The recent analysis of KIGS data has revealed no new adverse drug reactions since the 10-year follow-up. Therefore, treatment with GH seems a low-risk intervention in children and adolescents with various growth disorders. The process of developing disease-specific growth response prediction models has been ongoing in KIGS for many years. The available models are accurate, precise and have a relatively high degree of predictive power, although further predictors of the growth response remain to be identified. The KIGS prediction models can be applied prospectively to new patients, enabling their GH therapy to be better tailored and monitored to achieve optimal growth, safety and cost outcomes. The future of KIGS within the era of evidence-based medicine will continue to depend upon the quality of the data reported. Therefore, the commitment of participating physicians will continue to be a decisive element. The ongoing recognition of the importance of valid safety and efficacy information in the practice of paediatric endocrinology is exemplified by this valuable international collaboration of clinicians and the pharmaceutical community.

Traumatic Brain Injury

Author: Mark J. Ashley
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315354179
Size: 18,20 MB
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In the last decade neuroscience has matured at a remarkable pace, shedding a far more exacting light on mechanisms of neurophysiology, pathophysiology of injury, neuroendocrinology, neuro-immunology, neuroplasticity, neuropharmacology and neurodegenerative processes. Individuals with acquired brain injury are treated earlier and now achieve far better recovery than in the past. The fourth edition of this text constitutes a continuation of 20 years of coverage of traumatic brain injury, and broadens the discussion of acquired brain injury. Within TBI, the paradigm shift from an injury occurring at a point in time to a disease entity of a chronic nature is changing the discussion of diagnosis, management, treatment and outcome assessment. Disease specification that differentiates TBIs by the mechanism of injury, the exact nature of the injury, the extent of injury, presence of co-morbidities and their exact nature, gender, age, race, and genome are emerging as crucial. There was a time when cancer was an undifferentiated disease. Disease differentiation has consequently impacted diagnosis, treatment and outcome. This text is intended to serve as a ready reference tool, contributing to the professional growth of each reader, and stimulating innovation and research. It also promotes the continued refinement in the management of diseases of acquired brain injury.

The Somatotrophic Axis And The Reproductive Process In Health And Disease

Author: Eli Y. Adashi
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461225183
Size: 14,17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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For many years now, our understanding of the somatotrophic and reproduc tive axes has evolved essentially independently, both fields of study reaching a highly advanced, although far from complete, level of under standing. Along the way, however, it became apparent that in some circumstances the reproductive and somatotrophic axes may be inter dependent. Inklings to this effect were at times feeble and at other times more convincing. Among those inklings are the clinical recognition by pediatric endocrinologists of the apparent association between isolated GH deficiency and delayed puberty, as well as of the apparent permissive, pUberty-promoting property of GH. Equally important is a body of experi mental studies establishing the ovary of multiple species as a site of GH reception and action. Arguing against an essential role for GH in the reproductive process is the observation that individuals who have GH resistance of the Laron variety are fertile arid that isolated GH deficiency does not constitute an absolute barrier to the attainment of sexual maturation and fertility. The intraovarian insulin-like growth factor (IGF) hypothesis proposes that IGFs may serve as amplifiers of gonadotropin action. Although the dependence of intraovarian IGFs on systemic GH action has never been unequivocally demonstrated, that leap of faith has often been made. The intraovarian IGF hypothesis serves as the rationale for the adjunctive use of GH in the induction of ovulation.

Psychological Development In Children Of Short Stature

Author: Ann Erling
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 17,52 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Diet And Exercise In Cognitive Function And Neurological Diseases

Author: Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118840569
Size: 18,84 MB
Format: PDF
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Diet and exercise have long been recognized as important components of a healthy lifestyle, as they have a great impact on improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions, lowering the risk of metabolic disorders, and contributing to healthy aging. As a greater proportion of the world’s population is living longer, there has been increased interest in understanding the role of nutrition and exercise in long-term neurological health and cognitive function. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases discusses the role and impact that nutrition and activity have on cognitive function and neurological health. The book is divided into two sections. The first section focuses on diet and its impact on neurobiological processes. Chapters focus on the impacts of specific diets, such as the Mediterranean, ketogenic and vegan diets, as well as the role of specific nutrients, fats, fatty acids, and calorie restriction on neurological health and cognitive function. The second section of the book focuses on exercise, and its role in maintaining cognitive function, reducing neuroinflammatory responses, regulating adult neurogenesis, and healthy brain aging. Other chapters look at the impact of exercise in the management of specific neurological disorders such Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease. Diet and Exercise in Cognitive Function and Neurological Diseases is a timely reference on the neurobiological interplay between diet and exercise on long-term brain health and cognitive function.

Sports Endocrinology

Author: Michelle P. Warren
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592590160
Size: 16,80 MB
Format: PDF
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Since the observation in the 19th century that an extract of the suprarenal bodies injected into the circulation caused a rise in blood pressure, the endocrine system has become a major component in our understanding of human physiology. The introduction of radioimmunoassay techniques and the ability to measure minimal amounts of hor mones (a term derived from the Greek "to excite") have shown that acute exercise causes a release of a large number of hormones and that chronic exercise may further lead to long-term alterations in endocrine homeostasis. Actually, almost every organ and system in the body is affected by physical activity and exercise, much of it through the endocrine and neuroendocrine system. Investigation ofthe effect of acute or chronic physical activity on the endocrine system is a complex matter since the stimulus called "exercise" has many components, such as mode, intensity, duration, and others. In addition, several other factors, such as age, gender, training status, body temperature, circadian rhythm, metabolic state, menstrual cycle, and various external conditions as well as psychological factors, can modify the effect of physical activity on hormonal secretion. Moreover, the physiol9gical stimulus of exercise often provokes several and parallel cascades of biochemical and endocrine changes. It is therefore often extremely difficult to distinguish between primary and secondary events and between cause and effect. These limitations will be discussed in Chapter 1.

Interrelationships Between The Somatotropic Axis Ovarian Steroids And Reproduction In Dairy Cattle

Author: Amy Louise Bork
Editor:
ISBN:
Size: 18,50 MB
Format: PDF
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The Brain And Host Defense

Author:
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444535450
Size: 15,96 MB
Format: PDF
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It is now well recognized that the brain, and especially the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the regulation of immune reactions and inflammation. This book aims to review our current state of knowledge of this important field. Key historical findings are presented, and the reciprocal interactions between the brain and the immune system are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on inflammation, a critical host defense reaction that serves as an effector response for both the adaptive and innate immune systems. Mechanisms implicated in brain defense, as well as in more general host defense, are discussed. The regulatory influences of the brain on inflammatory responses are included with particular reference to the role of the hypothalamus, which is also the main director the hormonal regulation of immune/inflammatory. Gender-related differences in immune responsiveness, circadian modulator of immune responses, and evidence that behavioral conditioning (e.g. reward) of immune responses is possible are used as examples to reinforce the notion that the neuroendocrine system exerts a fundamental and complex regulatory influence on the immune system. * Presents timely issues such as immunological aspects of the blood-brain-barrier and the role of inflammatory mediators in the evolution of strokes and degenerative diseases * Includes analysis of the role of the brain in the adaptive responses to disease * Evaluates the argument that further knowledge of the influence of the brain on the immune system will provide new insights to the pathophysiology infectious and autoimmune diseases